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The BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase) enzyme portal (http://www.brenda-enzymes.org) is the main information system of functional biochemical and molecular enzyme data and provides access to seven interconnected databases. BRENDA contains 2.7 million manually annotated data on enzyme occurrence, function, kinetics and molecular properties. Each entry is(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a genetically complex mental illness characterized by severe oscillations of mood and behaviour. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci that together account for a small portion of the heritability. To identify additional risk loci, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis of >9 million genetic(More)
BACKGROUND The systematic, complete and correct reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks or metabolic pathways is one of the most challenging tasks in systems biology research. An essential requirement is the access to the complete biochemical knowledge - especially on the biochemical reactions. This knowledge is extracted from the scientific(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. To identify new BD genes and pathways, the present study employed a three-step approach. First, gene-expression profiles of BD patients were assessed during both a manic and an euthymic phase. These profiles were compared(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, complex psychiatric disorder and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite twin studies indicating its modest heritability (~30-40%), extensive heterogeneity and a complex genetic architecture have complicated efforts to detect associated genetic risk variants. We combined single-nucleotide polymorphism(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be(More)
The study was approved by the respective local Ethics Committees, and all subjects provided written informed consent. The study sample comprised 1,038 schizophrenia patients recruited from consecutive admissions to psychiatric hospitals in Germany. All individuals were of self-reported German ancestry and fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia.(More)
INTRODUCTION Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are psychiatric disorders with shared and distinct clinical and genetic features. In both disorders, stress increases the risk for onset or relapse and dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported. The latter is frequently investigated by measuring changes in the(More)
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BACKGROUND Research has demonstrated an association between exposure to early life stress and an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in later life, in particular depression. However, the mechanism through which early life stress contributes to disease development remains unclear. Previous studies have reported an association between early life stress(More)