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The BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase) enzyme portal (http://www.brenda-enzymes.org) is the main information system of functional biochemical and molecular enzyme data and provides access to seven interconnected databases. BRENDA contains 2.7 million manually annotated data on enzyme occurrence, function, kinetics and molecular properties. Each entry is(More)
BACKGROUND The systematic, complete and correct reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks or metabolic pathways is one of the most challenging tasks in systems biology research. An essential requirement is the access to the complete biochemical knowledge - especially on the biochemical reactions. This knowledge is extracted from the scientific(More)
The study was approved by the respective local Ethics Committees, and all subjects provided written informed consent. The study sample comprised 1,038 schizophrenia patients recruited from consecutive admissions to psychiatric hospitals in Germany. All individuals were of self-reported German ancestry and fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia.(More)
INTRODUCTION Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are psychiatric disorders with shared and distinct clinical and genetic features. In both disorders, stress increases the risk for onset or relapse and dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported. The latter is frequently investigated by measuring changes in the(More)
Genome-wide association for major depression through age at onset stratificationGenomic analysis of age at onset in depression, Biological Psychiatry, This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be(More)
BACKGROUND Research has demonstrated an association between exposure to early life stress and an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in later life, in particular depression. However, the mechanism through which early life stress contributes to disease development remains unclear. Previous studies have reported an association between early life stress(More)
Stress increases the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD), overeating, and alcohol dependence (AD). The neuropeptide Y system is one of the best-known modulators of the stress response, and some of its effects are mediated through the neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (NPY2R). The functional NPY2R variant rs6857715 (C-599T) has been implicated in both obesity(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a genetically complex mental illness characterized by severe oscillations of mood and behaviour. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci that together account for a small portion of the heritability. To identify additional risk loci, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis of >9 million genetic(More)