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OBJECTIVES To collect available international data on nicotine dependence as defined by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, and to compare levels of dependence among countries and categories of smokers. DATA SOURCES Published and unpublished studies known to the authors and a search of EMBASE from 1985-1995. STUDY SELECTION Studies included were(More)
RATIONALE This statement is an updated version of one released by the same authors in February 2003. The statement was produced to follow up the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) Tobacco Advisory Group report "Protecting smokers, saving lives: the case for a tobacco and nicotine regulatory authority", which argued for an evidence based regulatory approach(More)
PURPOSE To compare the self-reported estimation of sleep quality evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and life quality assessed by the Quality of Life Index (QLI). BACKGROUND The PSQI comprised 19 questions and assessed a wide variety of factors relating to sleep quality. The QLI consisted of 10 items for self assessment of different(More)
OBJECTIVES To gain reliable data on sleeping habits and sleep disturbances of the Austrian population. BACKGROUND Exact data on sleeping habits are of interest in relation to assessment of sleep disturbance-related illnesses and general social processes. METHODS A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed with recruitment of a representative(More)
BACKGROUND In the fall of 1998, 9095 smokers above 18 years, were interviewed about their smoking behaviour and knowledge and attitudes relating to the smoking. The survey (S) was conducted for the Cancer Commission of the EU and sponsored by SmithKline Beecham. An anti-smoking thermometer that is intended to assess the anti-smoking climate (ASC) in each EU(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports have indicated that coffee drinking is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle, compared with tea drinking, which may confound the effect in relation to coronary risk factors. METHODS In a population sample of 2,400 25- to 64-year-old men and women, associations of lifestyle factors with coffee and tea consumption were analyzed.(More)
Quality-of-life (QoL) issues have become increasingly important in health care practice and research. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) results in an especially serious reduction in QoL. The purpose of this study was to measure the QoL (life satisfaction) of OSAS patients treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). We aimed to(More)
Of the 300,000 deaths attributable to smoking among women in developed countries in 1985, 21% were coded to lung cancer, for example, 41% to cardiovascular diseases, primarily coronary heart disease and stroke, and 18% to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Overall, female deaths rates from lung cancer in developed countries increased by almost 200%(More)
Tobacco use is a global health care problem. Repetitive exposure to nicotine produces neuroadaptation resulting in nicotine dependence. Cigarette smoking is particularly addictive due to the repeated delivery of bolus doses of nicotine to the bloodstream. Although compulsive tobacco use is sustained by nicotine addiction, it is the toxic combustion products(More)