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BACKGROUND Amyloid fibrils such as Semen-Derived Enhancer of Viral Infection (SEVI) or amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) enhance HIV-1 attachment and entry. Inhibitors destroying or converting those fibrils into non-amyloidogenic aggregates effectively reduce viral infectivity. Thus, they seem to be suitable as therapeutic drugs expanding the current HIV-intervening(More)
IgG responses are crucial in antiviral defence and instrumental for the serodiagnosis of infections. Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), which recognize the Fc-part of IgG, differ regarding their IgG binding affinity, IgG subclass preference, cellular expression profile and pathogen elimination mechanisms elicited upon activation. Assessing their activation in vitro is(More)
Within target T lymphocytes, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) encounters the retroviral restriction factor APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G; A3G), which is counteracted by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vif. Vif is encoded by intron-containing viral RNAs that are generated by splicing at 3' splice site(More)
Effective splice site selection is critically controlled by flanking splicing regulatory elements (SREs) that can enhance or repress splice site use. Although several computational algorithms currently identify a multitude of potential SRE motifs, their predictive power with respect to mutation effects is limited. Following a RESCUE-type approach, we(More)
The viral regulatory protein Tat is essential for establishing a productive transcription from the 5′-LTR promoter during the early phase of viral gene expression. Formation of the Tat-encoding mRNAs requires splicing at the viral 3′ss A3, which has previously been shown to be both negatively and positively regulated by the downstream splicing regulatory(More)
The HIV-1 accessory proteins, Viral Infectivity Factor (Vif) and the pleiotropic Viral Protein R (Vpr) are important for efficient virus replication. While in non-permissive cells an appropriate amount of Vif is critical to counteract APOBEC3G-mediated host restriction, the Vpr-induced G2 arrest sets the stage for highest transcriptional activity of the(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of anti-HBc antibodies indicates direct encounter of the immune system with hepatitis B virus (HBV). OBJECTIVES Aim of our study was to seek for anti-HBc negative but HBV replicating patients and analyze their clinical course and preconditions. STUDY DESIGN From 1568 HBV-DNA positive patients, 29 patients (1.85%) tested negative(More)
Michael Punzel, Patrick Medd, Hannah Hunter, Richard Cunningham, Bryson Pottinger, Bernd Burde, Marek Widera, Annegret Quade, Gerhard Ehninger, Anna Kozlova, Helmuth Schmidt, Karin Buhrmann, Christian G. Schüttler, Dieter Glebe, Annelies Billen, Alexander H. Schmidt, Thilo Mengling; Jens Verheyen Cellex Apheresis and Collection Center, MediaPark Klinik,(More)
HIV-1 mediates pro-survival signals and prevents apoptosis via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This pathway, however, also affects phosphorylation of serine-arginine (SR) proteins, a family of splicing regulatory factors balancing splice site selection. We now show that pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K signalling alters the HIV-1 splicing(More)
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was(More)