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Our previous studies in the Sprague-Dawley rat showed that the intrinsic antinociceptive effects of oxycodone are naloxone reversible in a manner analogous to morphine but that in contrast to morphine, oxycodone's antinociceptive effects have a rapid onset of maximum effect (approximately 5-7 min compared to 30-45 min for morphine), comprise one(More)
1. Antinociception versus serum morphine concentration relationships were defined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered single intravenous (i.v.) bolus doses of morphine, using the hot plate (2.1-14 mg/kg) and tail flick tests (1-8 mg/kg). 2. Serum concentrations of morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), its major metabolite in the rat,(More)
Although morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) has been shown to be analgesically active, the relative involvement of spinal and supraspinal structures in mediating M6G's pain-relieving effects following central and systemic administration to rats is unclear. As the tail flick and hotplate latency tests are reported to quantify antinociception mediated primarily by(More)
Previously, we reported that oxycodone is a putative kappa-opioid agonist based on studies where intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pre-treatment of rats with the kappa-selective opioid antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI), abolished i.c.v. oxycodone but not morphine antinociception, whereas pretreatment with i.c.v. naloxonazine (mu-selective antagonist)(More)
In this study, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), the major plasma and urinary metabolite of morphine, was shown to be a potent antagonist of morphine analgesia when administered to rats by the intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route. The antagonism of morphine analgesia was observed irrespective of whether i.c.v. M3G (2.5 or 3.0 micrograms) was administered 15(More)
N-type calcium channels modulate the release of key pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters such as glutamate and substance P (SP) in the central nervous system. Considerable research interest has focused on the therapeutic potential of the peptidic omega-conopeptides, GVIA and MVIIA as novel analgesic agents, due to their potent inhibition of N-type calcium(More)
Clinically, central nervous system (CNS) disorders account for more hospitalisations and prolonged care than almost all other diseases combined. In the preclinical setting, the intracerebroventricular (ICV) route for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling or dose administration in rodent models of human CNS disorders has potential to provide key insight on the(More)
Prostate cancer (PCa) has a high propensity for metastasis to bone. Despite the availability of multiple treatment options for relief of PCa-induced bone pain (PCIBP), satisfactory relief of intractable pain in patients with advanced bony metastases is challenging for the clinicians because currently available analgesic drugs are often limited by poor(More)
Xen2174 is a structural analogue of Mr1A, a chi-conopeptide recently isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail, Conus marmoreus. Although both chi-conopeptides are highly selective inhibitors of the norepinephrine transporter (NET), Xen2174 has superior chemical stability relative to Mr1A. It is well-known that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are(More)
Morphine in high doses and its major metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, cause CNS excitation following intrathecal and intracerebroventricular administration by an unknown mechanism. This study investigated whether morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide interact at major excitatory (glutamate), major inhibitory (GABA or glycine), or opioid binding sites.(More)