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We report that eight heterozygous missense mutations in TUBB3, encoding the neuron-specific beta-tubulin isotype III, result in a spectrum of human nervous system disorders that we now call the TUBB3 syndromes. Each mutation causes the ocular motility disorder CFEOM3, whereas some also result in intellectual and behavioral impairments, facial paralysis,(More)
Microtubules are essential components of axon guidance machinery. Among β-tubulin mutations, only those in TUBB3 have been shown to cause primary errors in axon guidance. All identified mutations in TUBB2B result in polymicrogyria, but it remains unclear whether TUBB2B mutations can cause axon dysinnervation as a primary phenotype. We have identified a(More)
Anophthalmia (no eye), microphthalmia (small eye) and associated ocular developmental anomalies cause significant visual handicap. In most cases the underlying genetic cause is unknown, but mutations in some genes, such as SOX2, cause ocular developmental defects, particularly anophthalmia, in a subset of patients. Here, we describe a four-generation family(More)
Congenital cataracts are a significant cause of lifelong visual loss. They may be isolated or associated with microcornea, microphthalmia, anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) and glaucoma, and there can be syndromic associations. Genetic diagnosis is challenging due to marked genetic heterogeneity. In this study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 32(More)
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