Mardo Kõivomägi

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Multisite phosphorylation of proteins has been proposed to transform a graded protein kinase signal into an ultrasensitive switch-like response. Although many multiphosphorylated targets have been identified, the dynamics and sequence of individual phosphorylation events within the multisite phosphorylation process have never been thoroughly studied. In(More)
Cdk specificity is determined by the intrinsic selectivity of the active site and by substrate docking sites on the cyclin subunit. There is a long-standing debate about the relative importance of these factors in the timing of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation. We analyzed major budding yeast cyclins (the G1/S-cyclin Cln2, S-cyclin Clb5, G2/M-cyclin Clb3, and(More)
The order and timing of cell-cycle events is controlled by changing substrate specificity and different activity thresholds of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). However, it is not understood how a single protein kinase can trigger hundreds of switches in a sufficiently time-resolved fashion. We show that cyclin-Cdk1-Cks1-dependent phosphorylation of(More)
Cell size fundamentally affects all biosynthetic processes by determining the scale of organelles and influencing surface transport. Although extensive studies have identified many mutations affecting cell size, the molecular mechanisms underlying size control have remained elusive. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, size control occurs in G1(More)
Cks is an evolutionarily conserved protein that regulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. Clarifying the underlying mechanisms and cellular contexts of Cks function is critical because Cks is essential for proper cell growth, and its overexpression has been linked to cancer. We observe that budding-yeast Cks associates with select phosphorylated(More)
The kinesin-5 Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue Cin8 is shown here to be differentially phosphorylated during late anaphase at Cdk1-specific sites located in its motor domain. Wild-type Cin8 binds to the early-anaphase spindles and detaches from the spindles at late anaphase, whereas the phosphorylation-deficient Cin8-3A mutant protein remains attached to(More)
Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) is a pseudokinase that has been implicated in the control of stress response, cell viability and metabolic processes, and has been linked to medical conditions, including insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Therefore, the understanding of mechanisms that regulate TRB3 expression is of considerable importance.(More)
The G1/S transition is a crucial decision point in the cell cycle. At G1/S, there is an abrupt switch from a state of high cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) inhibitor (CKI) levels and low S-phase CDK activity to a state of high S-phase CDK activity and degraded CKI. In budding yeast, this transition is triggered by phosphorylation of the Cdk1 inhibitor Sic1 at(More)
Multisite phosphorylation of proteins is a powerful signal processing mechanism that plays crucial roles in cell division and differentiation as well as in disease. We recently demonstrated a novel phenomenon in cell cycle regulation by showing that cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent multisite phosphorylation of a crucial substrate is performed sequentially(More)