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Three experiments explored the effectiveness of continuous auditory displays, or sonifications, for conveying information about a simulated anesthetized patient's respiration. Experiment 1 established an effective respiratory sonification. Experiment 2 showed an effect of expertise in the use of respiratory sonification and revealed that some apparent(More)
BACKGROUND In a full-scale anesthesia simulator study we examined the relative effectiveness of advanced auditory displays for respiratory and blood pressure monitoring and of head-mounted displays (HMDs) as supplements to standard intraoperative monitoring. METHODS Participants were 16 residents and attendings. While performing a reading-based distractor(More)
We reviewed the use of advanced display technologies for monitoring in anesthesia. Researchers are investigating displays that integrate information and that, in some cases, also deliver the results continuously to the anesthesiologist. Integrated visual displays reveal higher-order properties of patient state and speed in responding to events, but their(More)
OBJECTIVE We explore whether ecological interface design (EID) principles can be applied to the design of an auditory display for anesthesia monitoring. BACKGROUND EID examples focus almost exclusively on visual displays. In the anesthesia work environment, however, auditory displays may provide better individual and team awareness of patient state. (More)
We have proposed an extension of Ecological Interface Design (EID) to encompass the design of auditory displays. Our analysis shows that EID can succeed in this task if all stages of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) are employed and if an extra " attentional mapping " stage is added, which maps the attentional need of the human operators. A review of auditory(More)
We discuss the phenomenon of system tailoring in the context of data from an observational study of anaesthesia. We found that anaesthetists tailor their monitoring equipment so that the auditory alarms are more informative. However, the occurrence of tailoring by anaesthetists in the operating theatre was infrequent, even though the flexibility to tailor(More)
We examined the effect of no music, classical music or rock music on simulated patient monitoring. Twenty-four non-anaesthetist participants with high or low levels of musical training were trained to monitor visual and auditory displays of patients' vital signs. In nine anaesthesia test scenarios, participants were asked every 50-70 s whether one of five(More)
We investigate the effectiveness of sonification (continuous auditory display) for supporting patient monitoring while reducing visual attentional workload in the operating theatre. Non-anaesthetist participants performed a simple continuous arithmetic task while monitoring the status of a simulated anaesthetised patient , reporting the status of vital(More)
BACKGROUND Head-mounted displays (HMDs) can help anesthesiologists with intraoperative monitoring by keeping patients' vital signs within view at all times, even while the anesthesiologist is busy performing procedures or unable to see the monitor. The anesthesia literature suggests that there are advantages of HMD use, but research into head-up displays in(More)
The development of blood pressure earcons for patient monitoring is used to illustrate how data that varies from intermittent to continuous sampling can be integrated into a single auditory display design. A scalable-earcon structure that extends the concept of hierarchies of earcons is proposed for representing blood pressure information. This structure(More)