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Effective defense against natural threats in the environment is essential for the survival of individual animals. Thus, instinctive behavioral responses accompanied by fear have evolved to protect individuals from predators and from opponents of the same species (dominant conspecifics). While it has been suggested that all perceived environmental threats(More)
If a pair of dots, diametrically opposed to each other, is flashed in perfect alignment with another pair of dots rotating about the visual fixation point, most observers perceive the rotating dots as being ahead of the flashing dots (flash-lag effect). This psychophysical effect was first interpreted as the result of a perceptual extrapolation of the(More)
In this study we provide a comprehensive analysis of the hypothalamic activation pattern during exposure to a live predator or an environment previously associated with a predator. Our results support the view that hypothalamic processing of the actual and the contextual predatory threats share the same circuit, in which the dorsal premammillary nucleus(More)
Previous studies have documented a subjective temporal attraction between actions and their effects. This finding, named intentional binding, is thought to be the result of a cognitive function that links actions to their consequences. Although several studies have tried to outline the necessary and sufficient conditions for intentional binding, a(More)
The amygdala plays a critical role in determining the emotional significance of sensory stimuli and the production of fear-related responses. Large amygdalar lesions have been shown to practically abolish innate defensiveness to a predator; however, it is not clear how the different amygdalar systems participate in the defensive response to a live predator.(More)
If a dot is flashed in perfect alignment with a pair of dots rotating around the visual fixation point, most observers perceive the rotating dots as being ahead of the flashing dot (flash-lag effect). This perceptual effect has been interpreted to result from the perceptual extrapolation of the moving dots, the differential visual latencies between flashing(More)
The relationship between sleep and epilepsy is both complex and clinically significant. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) influences sleep architecture, while sleep plays an important role in facilitating and/or inhibiting possible epileptic seizures. The pilocarpine experimental model reproduces several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy and is one of the(More)
In this study, we have aimed at outlining the neural systems underlying the expression of contextual fear to social defeat. First, we have developed an experimental procedure, where defeated animals could express, without the presence of a dominant aggressive male, robust and reliable conditioned fear responses to the context associated with social defeat.(More)
Previous studies suggested a role for the rostral lateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the inhibition of maternal behavior induced by low doses of morphine in dams with previous morphine experience. In the present study, we first showed that unilateral NMDA lesions placed in this particular PAG region prevented the morphine-induced inhibition of maternal(More)
Animals faced with conflicting cues, such as predatory threat and a given rewarding stimulus, must make rapid decisions to engage in defensive versus other appetitive behaviors. The brain mechanisms mediating such responses are poorly understood. However, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) seems particularly suitable for accomplishing this task. The PAG is(More)