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BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of invasive bacterial disease and otitis media in infants and young children. Licensed pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines are not reliably immunogenic in children younger than 2 years of age; therefore pneumococcal glycoprotein conjugate vaccines are currently being evaluated for safety,(More)
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended for routine immunization in the United States in part because of its ability to induce intestinal and pharyngeal immunity to reinfection. Mucosal immunity produced by OPV and enhanced-potency inactivated polio vaccine (E-IPV) was compared by challenging vaccines with type 1 OPV. Fewer OPV (25%) than E-IPV (63%)(More)
The relative immunity induced by sequential administration of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) produced in human diploid cells and live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was evaluated by randomization of 510 infants to receive IPV and OPV sequentially according to one of three experimental schedules, IPV only, or OPV only. The antibody response(More)
In a randomized, controlled trial carried out from November 1980 to July 1983 involving 1,114 infants in Baltimore City and in Baltimore and Prince George's counties, Maryland, the serologic response to three doses of two enhanced-potency inactivated polio vaccines was compared with the response to three doses of oral polio vaccine. The mean ages at(More)
Serum neutralizing, nasopharyngeal neutralizing, and IgA antibodies were determined in 123 infants immunized with one of four schedules containing live oral vaccine (OPV), inactivated vaccine (IPV), or combinations of the two trivalent poliovirus vaccines: OPV-OPV-OPV, IPV-IPV-IPV, IPV-OPV-OPV, or IPV-IPV-OPV. Nearly 100% of individuals formed serum(More)
OBJECTIVE Hepatitis B vaccines are usually administered on a schedule of 0, 1 to 2, and 6 months. Longer intervals between the second and third doses have been studied, but the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccine administered at intervals of >2 months between the first and second doses have not been studied. Our objective was to compare the antibody(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors coexist in rat heart but beta(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic effects are hardly detectable, possibly due to phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. We investigated the influence of the PDE3 inhibitor cilostamide (300 nmol x L(-1)) and the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (1 micromol x L(-1)) on the effects of(More)
Because most childhood invasive pneumococcal disease occurs before the age of 2 years, the development of a pneumococcal vaccine that is immunogenic in infants is a priority. We assessed the safety and serum antibody responses to two dose levels of three bivalent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-protein conjugate vaccines incorporating the poorly(More)
BACKGROUND Advisory committees have recommended the increased use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) for children. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of three schedules using IPV administered with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole cell pertussis vaccines in a dual-chambered syringe. Children also(More)
BACKGROUND Concern about the 8 to 10 cases per year of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis caused by the live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to revised guidelines for immunization of children in the United States. The use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at 2 and 4 months of age could require administration of 3 injections per visit(More)