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Combined phylogenetic and chromosomal location studies suggest that the orphan receptor RDC1 is related to CXC chemokine receptors. RDC1 provides a co-receptor function for a restricted number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates, in particular for the CXCR4-using HIV-2 ROD strain. Here we show that CXCL12, the only known natural ligand for CXCR4,(More)
BACKGROUND CXCR7 (RDC1), the recently discovered second receptor for CXCL12, is phylogenetically closely related to chemokine receptors, but fails to couple to G-proteins and to induce typical chemokine receptor mediated cellular responses. The function of CXCR7 is controversial. Some studies suggest a signaling activity in mammalian cells and zebrafish(More)
Biological properties of chemokines are believed to be influenced by their association with glycosaminoglycans. Surface plasmon resonance kinetic analysis shows that the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), which binds the CXCR4 receptor, associates with heparin with an affinity constant of 38.4 nM (k(on) = 2.16 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)(More)
A novel human CC chemokine consisting of 78 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8,778.3 daltons (VVIPSPCCMF FVSKRIPENR VVSYQLSSRS TCLKAGVIFT TKKGQQ SCGD PKQEWVQRYM KNLDAKQKKA SPRARAVA) was isolated together with three minor COOH-terminally truncated variants with 73, 75, and 76 residues. The new chemokine was termed eotaxin-2 because it is(More)
Since their discovery 13 years ago, chemokines have emerged as the most important regulators of leukocyte trafficking. On target cells, chemokines bind to seven-transmembrane-domain receptors that are coupled to heterotrimeric Gi proteins. The common response of all cells to chemokine stimulation is chemotaxis. In addition, leukocyte activation triggers(More)
After tissue damage, inflammatory cells infiltrate the tissue and release proinflammatory cytokines. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), a nuclear protein released by necrotic and severely stressed cells, promotes cytokine release via its interaction with the TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) receptor and cell migration via an unknown mechanism. We show that(More)
Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor(More)
The chemokine CXCL12 promotes migration of human leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, and tumor cells. The binding of CXCL12 to its receptor CXCR4 triggers Gi protein signals for motility and integrin activation in many cell types. CXCR7 is a second, recently identified receptor for CXCL12, but its role as an intrinsic G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)(More)