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BACKGROUND CXCR7 (RDC1), the recently discovered second receptor for CXCL12, is phylogenetically closely related to chemokine receptors, but fails to couple to G-proteins and to induce typical chemokine receptor mediated cellular responses. The function of CXCR7 is controversial. Some studies suggest a signaling activity in mammalian cells and zebrafish(More)
The dynamic properties of the cell cortex and its actin cytoskeleton determine important aspects of cell behavior and are a major target of cell regulation. GAP43, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), and CAP23 (GMC) are locally abundant, plasmalemma-associated PKC substrates that affect actin cytoskeleton. Their expression correlates(More)
CXCR7, formerly called RDC1 is a recently deorphanized G-protein coupled receptor which binds with high affinity the inflammatory and homing chemokines CXCL11/ITAC and CXCL12/SDF-1. Despite its phylogenetic relation and ligand binding properties CXCR7 does not mediate typical chemokine receptor responses such as leukocyte trafficking. Recent findings in(More)
The chemokine CXCL12 promotes migration of human leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, and tumor cells. The binding of CXCL12 to its receptor CXCR4 triggers Gi protein signals for motility and integrin activation in many cell types. CXCR7 is a second, recently identified receptor for CXCL12, but its role as an intrinsic G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)(More)
After tissue damage, inflammatory cells infiltrate the tissue and release proinflammatory cytokines. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), a nuclear protein released by necrotic and severely stressed cells, promotes cytokine release via its interaction with the TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) receptor and cell migration via an unknown mechanism. We show that(More)
Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor(More)
A novel human CC chemokine consisting of 78 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 8,778.3 daltons (VVIPSPCCMF FVSKRIPENR VVSYQLSSRS TCLKAGVIFT TKKGQQ SCGD PKQEWVQRYM KNLDAKQKKA SPRARAVA) was isolated together with three minor COOH-terminally truncated variants with 73, 75, and 76 residues. The new chemokine was termed eotaxin-2 because it is(More)
We report that stromal cell–derived factor (SDF)-1 has the remarkable capacity to induce sustained signaling through CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In contrast to other chemo-kines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (CC chemokine receptor 2 [CCR2]), macro-phage inflammatory protein 1 ␤ (CCR5), liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC [CCR6]),(More)
The myristoylated, alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is a prominent substrate for protein kinase C (PKC) in a variety of cells, and has been implicated in diverse cellular processes including neurosecretion, fibroblast mitogenesis, and macrophage activation. In macrophages that have spread on the substratum, MARCKS has a punctate distribution at the(More)
A novel human CC chemokine complementary DNA was identified in a library constructed from human fetal RNA, cloned into a baculovirus vector, and expressed in Sf9 insect cells. The mature recombinant protein that was released had the NH2-terminal sequence pyro-QPDALNVPSTC...and consisted of 75 amino acids. Minor amounts of two variants of 77 and 82 residues(More)