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In plants, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an effective trigger of RNA silencing, and several classes of endogenous small RNA (sRNA), processed from dsRNA substrates by DICER-like (DCL) endonucleases, are essential in controlling gene expression. One such sRNA class, the microRNAs (miRNAs) control the expression of closely related genes to regulate all(More)
It is known that 22-nucleotide (nt) microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from asymmetric duplexes trigger phased small-interfering RNA (phasiRNA) production from complementary targets. Here we investigate the efficacy of 22-nt artificial miRNA (amiRNA)-mediated RNA silencing relative to conventional hairpin RNA (hpRNA) and 21-nt amiRNA-mediated RNA silencing.(More)
Our results demonstrate that the size polymorphism in this fragment of the rrnL gene reliably distinguishes A. andreniformis and A. florea. With some slight modifications to the DNA extraction protocol, we have successfully employed the above method to assign species to adult drones, a queen and drone brood of all stages.
RNA-guided endonuclease-mediated targeted mutagenesis using the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been successful at targeting specific loci for modification in plants. While polyploidy is an evolutionary mechanism enabling plant adaptation, the analysis of gene function in polyploid plants has been limited(More)
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