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In simple epithelial cells, apical and basolateral proteins are sorted into separate vesicular carriers before delivery to the appropriate plasma membrane domains. To dissect the putative sorting machinery, we have solubilized Golgi-derived transport vesicles with the detergent CHAPS and shown that an apical marker, influenza haemagglutinin (HA), formed a(More)
We address the question to which degree ridge habitats in tropical montane forests contribute to overall plant diversity by analysing patterns of pteridophyte (i.e. lycophytes and ferns) assemblages on ridges and slopes in three montane forest sites near Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador. The analyses, which involved 158 pteridophyte species (110(More)
Primer and probe sequence designs are among the most critical input factors in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay optimization. In this study, we present the use of statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach as a general guideline for probe optimization and more specifically focus on design optimization of label-free hydrolysis probes(More)
We present a review of the documented fungal colonizations of presumably symbiotic nature in lycophytes and ferns (“pteridophytes”). The sampling covers ca. 11 % (1287 spp.) of the estimated global diversity of these taxa (ca. 12,000 spp.) and shows an average presence of fungal endophytes of 68 %, which is significantly lower than the average presence of(More)
A synopsis of all Neotropical species of Cyathea with bipinnate fronds is presented. This artificial group includes 27 species with entire or very shallowly lobed pinnules. The provided key includes together, for the first time, species that had been previously treated in three different genera: Sphaeropteris, Trichipteris, and Cyathea. Full synonymy and(More)
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