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have to account for this observation. The realization of a variation in Fe/Si ratio among the terrestrial planets will also alter the details of our models of martian mantle chemistry and core formation scenarios. Models of core formation in the terrestrial planets cannot assume bulk C1 siderophile element abundances.sure Research. We are grateful to G.(More)
INTRODUCTION To investigate whether interstitial cells (ICs) are present in the adult mouse bladder, and what transmitters characterize adjacent nerve fibres, as ICs in human and guinea-pig bladder lie close to nerve fibres but transmitters present in these nerves have not yet been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sections of the bladder wall from 12 adult(More)
Spontaneous localised propagating waves of contraction and localised stretches have been reported to occur in the isolated whole bladder of the guinea pig. The physiological role and the cellular processes underlying these events are unknown. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms generating this complex activity, experiments were performed to examine(More)
Normal bladder function is controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) and any peripheral contribution to bladder control is believed to be small. Nevertheless, anatomically and functionally, such a contribution might exist. Taking account of this evidence, we propose that the detrusor muscle is arranged into modules, which are circumscribed areas of(More)
Characterizing the integrative physiology of the bladder requires whole organ preparations. The purpose of this study was to validate an isolated large animal (pig) bladder preparation, through arterial and intravesical drug administration, intravesical pressure recording, and filming of surface micromotions. Female pig bladders were obtained from the local(More)
The effect of the immunosuppressant FK506 on ischaemic neuronal damage was studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia induced by occlusion of both common carotid arteries in combination with hypotension for 10 min. Neuronal damage was assessed morphologically after 4 days of recovery. Treatment with FK506, given at a dose of 2 mg kg-1 by(More)
The bladder receives an extensive nerve supply that is predominantly cholinergic, but several putative transmitters are present, some of which are colocalized. Previous studies have shown increased levels of sensory nerves, reduced inhibitory transmitters, and structural and functional changes in the excitatory input in unstable bladder conditions. The(More)
Normal urinary function is contingent upon a complex hierarchy of CNS regulation. Lower urinary tract afferents synapse in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and ascend to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), with a separate nociception path to the thalamus. A spino-thalamo-cortical sensory pathway is present in some primates, including humans. In the(More)
The urinary microbiome of healthy individuals and the way it alters with ageing have not been characterized and may influence disease processes. Conventional microbiological methods have limited scope to capture the full spectrum of urinary bacterial species. We studied the urinary microbiota from a population of healthy individuals, ranging from 26 to 90(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the peripheral anatomical distribution of innervation within muscle bundles of the detrusor and the changes arising in neurogenic detrusor overactivity (DO). PATIENTS AND METHODS Full-thickness samples from the bladder dome of three cadaveric transplant organ donors and four people with neurogenic DO caused by spinal cord injury were(More)