Marcus J. Kitchen

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Phase contrast x-ray imaging can provide detailed images of lung morphology with sufficient spatial resolution to observe the terminal airways (alveoli). We demonstrate that quantitative functional and anatomical imaging of lung ventilation can be achieved in vivo using two-dimensional phase contrast x-ray images with high contrast and spatial resolution(More)
The effect of a 20 s sustained inflation (SI) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on functional residual capacity (FRC) formation at birth were investigated. Preterm rabbit pups (28 d) were randomized at birth into four groups (n = 6 for each): 1) SI, PEEP 5 cm H2O, 2) no SI, PEEP 5 cm H2O, 3) no SI + no PEEP, 4) SI + no PEEP. FRC and tidal volume(More)
At birth, the initiation of pulmonary gas exchange is dependent on air entry into the lungs, and recent evidence indicates that pressures generated by inspiration may be involved. We have used simultaneous plethysmography and phase-contrast X-ray imaging to investigate the contribution of inspiration and expiratory braking maneuvers (EBMs) to lung aeration(More)
Aeration of the lung and the transition to air-breathing at birth is fundamental to mammalian life and initiates major changes in cardiopulmonary physiology. However, the dynamics of this process and the factors involved are largely unknown, because it has not been possible to observe or measure lung aeration on a breath-by-breath basis. We have used the(More)
The significant degree of X-ray phase contrast created by air-tissue interfaces, coupled with the poor radiographic contrast of conventional chest radiographs, makes the inflated lung an ideal candidate for investigating the potential diagnostic improvement afforded by phase contrast X-ray imaging. In small animals these methods highlight the lung airways(More)
As neonatal resuscitation critically depends upon lung aeration at birth, knowledge of the progression of this process is required to guide ongoing care. We investigated whether expired CO2 (ECO2) levels indicate the degree of lung aeration immediately after birth in two animal models and in preterm infants. Lambs were delivered by caesarean section and(More)
High quality real-time imaging of lungs in vivo presents considerable challenges. We demonstrate here that phase contrast x-ray imaging is capable of dynamically imaging the lungs. It retains many of the advantages of simple x-ray imaging, whilst also being able to map weakly absorbing soft tissues based on refractive index differences. Preliminary results(More)
At birth, the transition to newborn life is triggered by lung aeration, which stimulates a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). Current theories predict that the increase in PBF is spatially related to ventilated lung regions as they aerate after birth. Using simultaneous phase-contrast X-ray imaging and angiography we investigated the spatial(More)
Since lung diseases adversely affect airflow during breathing, they must also alter normal lung motion, which can be exploited to detect these diseases. However, standard imaging techniques such as CT and MRI imaging during breath-holds provide little or no information on lung motion and cannot detect diseases that cause subtle changes in lung structure.(More)
We demonstrate interface-specific propagation-based x-ray phase retrieval tomography of the thorax and brain of small animals. Our method utilizes a single propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast image per projection, under the assumptions of (i) partially coherent paraxial radiation, (ii) a static object whose refractive indices take on one of a series of(More)