Marcus J. Kitchen

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Aeration of the lung and the transition to air-breathing at birth is fundamental to mammalian life and initiates major changes in cardiopulmonary physiology. However, the dynamics of this process and the factors involved are largely unknown, because it has not been possible to observe or measure lung aeration on a breath-by-breath basis. We have used the(More)
Phase contrast x-ray imaging can provide detailed images of lung morphology with sufficient spatial resolution to observe the terminal airways (alveoli). We demonstrate that quantitative functional and anatomical imaging of lung ventilation can be achieved in vivo using two-dimensional phase contrast x-ray images with high contrast and spatial resolution(More)
The factors regulating lung aeration and the initiation of pulmonary gas exchange at birth are largely unknown, particularly in infants born very preterm. As hydrostatic pressure gradients may play a role, we have examined the effect of a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the spatial and temporal pattern of lung aeration in preterm rabbit pups(More)
The significant degree of X-ray phase contrast created by air-tissue interfaces, coupled with the poor radiographic contrast of conventional chest radiographs, makes the inflated lung an ideal candidate for investigating the potential diagnostic improvement afforded by phase contrast X-ray imaging. In small animals these methods highlight the lung airways(More)
The transition to newborn life critically depends upon lung aeration and the onset of air-breathing, which triggers major cardiovascular changes required for postnatal life, including increases in pulmonary blood flow. Recent imaging studies indicate that lung aeration and functional residual capacity (FRC) recruitment results from inspiratory efforts,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent phase-contrast X-ray imaging studies suggest that inspiration primarily drives lung aeration and airway liquid clearance at birth, which questions the role of adrenaline-induced activation of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). We hypothesized that pressures generated by inspiration have a greater role in airway liquid clearance than do(More)
Current recommendations suggest the use of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) to assist very preterm infants to develop a functional residual capacity (FRC) and establish gas exchange at birth. However, maintaining a consistent PEEP is difficult and so the lungs are exposed to changing distending pressures after birth, which can affect respiratory(More)
Respiratory health is directly linked to the structural and mechanical properties of the airways of the lungs. For studying respiratory development and pathology, the ability to quantitatively measure airway dimensions and changes in their size during respiration is highly desirable. Real-time imaging of the terminal airways with sufficient contrast and(More)
High quality real-time imaging of lungs in vivo presents considerable challenges. We demonstrate here that phase contrast x-ray imaging is capable of dynamically imaging the lungs. It retains many of the advantages of simple x-ray imaging, whilst also being able to map weakly absorbing soft tissues based on refractive index differences. Preliminary results(More)
The effect of a 20 s sustained inflation (SI) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on functional residual capacity (FRC) formation at birth were investigated. Preterm rabbit pups (28 d) were randomized at birth into four groups (n = 6 for each): 1) SI, PEEP 5 cm H2O, 2) no SI, PEEP 5 cm H2O, 3) no SI + no PEEP, 4) SI + no PEEP. FRC and tidal volume(More)