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A hypothesis, based on epidemiological and histopathological data, is proposed to account for the aetiology of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Adenomas are initially caused by an environmental agent which acts on the colorectal cells of adenoma-prone persons, a further environmental agent causes small adenomas to grow, and a carcinogen causes malignancy(More)
There is an ecological association between total and animal fat consumption and colorectal and breast cancer risk. Mortality data for breast and colorectal cancer for 24 European countries correlated, as expected, with the consumption of animal, but not vegetable, fat. There was an inverse correlation with fish and fish oil consumption, when expressed as a(More)
Of 44 patients with cancer of the large bowel, 36 ( 82%) had high faecal bile-acid concentrations compared with only 15 (17%) out of 90 patients with other diseases. 31 (70%) of the 44 patients with large-bowel cancer had high faecal bile-acid concentrations in the presence of faecal clostridia able to dehydrogenate the bile-acid nucleus, compared with(More)
It has been shown in vitro that bacteria are able to form or release carcinogens, mutagens, or promoters from intestinal secretions such as bile, or from excretions such as urine. It is, therefore, of interest to find out whether chronic infection of the gallbladder is associated with carcinogens, as in chronic infection of the urinary bladder. A study of(More)
Bacteriological studies were carried out on samples of gastric juice obtained from 31 patients with peptic ulcer before and immediately after a month's course of cimetidine. After cimetidine there were major increases in both total bacterial counts and counts of nitrate-reducing organisms and qualitative changes suggesting the establishment of a flora which(More)
In a study of three socio-economic groups in Hong Kong, the high income group had a high faecal concentration of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy bile acids, compared to the low income group. The faecal bile acids were also more highly degraded. The faecal flora contained more bacteroides and fewer eubacteria. Very few of the clostridia able to(More)
Nitrite and hydrogen ion concentrations have been measured in the fasting gastric juice of 69 patients undergoing routine gastrointestinal investigations. There was an inverse relationship between nitrite concentration and hydrogen ion concentration, with a highly significant increase in gastric-juice nitrite in hypochlorhydric subjects. Thiocyanate was(More)
When compared with a matched population group, 4466 ulcer patients who had had gastric surgery between 1940 and 1960 showed no difference in the risk of death from gastric cancer in the first 20 years of follow-up but a 4.5-fold increase thereafter. In duodenal ulcer patients there was an initial decrease in risk followed by a 3.7-fold increase after 20 or(More)