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This article examines working memory functioning in children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills as defined by ICD-10. Ninety-seven second to fourth graders with a minimum IQ of 80 are compared using a 2 x 2 factorial (dyscalculia vs. no dyscalculia; dyslexia vs. no dyslexia) design. An extensive test battery assesses the three(More)
(Received 00 Month 200x; In final form 00 Month 200x) Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood [Scarborough et al., 1977]. Negative priming – the opposite effect – is(More)
We introduce a computational model of the negative priming (NP) effect that includes perception, memory, attention, decision making, and action. The model is designed to provide a coherent picture across competing theories of NP. The model is formulated in terms of abstract dynamics for the activations of features, their binding into object entities, their(More)
The present study addresses the problem whether negative priming (NP) is due to information processing in perception, recognition or selection. We argue that most NP studies confound priming and perceptual similarity of prime-probe episodes and implement a color-switch paradigm in order to resolve the issue. In a series of three identity negative priming(More)
The neural correlates of developmental dyslexia have been investigated intensively over the last two decades and reliable evidence for a dysfunction of left-hemispheric reading systems in dyslexic readers has been found in functional neuroimaging studies. In addition, structural imaging studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrated grey matter(More)
BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a very common and highly heritable child psychiatric disorder associated with dysfunctions in fronto-striatal networks that control attention and response organization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether features of action monitoring related to dopaminergic functions represent(More)
Variability in strategy use within single trials in free recall was analyzed longitudinally from second to fourth grades (ages 8-10 years). To control for practice effects another sample of fourth graders was included (age 10 years). Video analyses revealed that children employed different strategies when preparing for free recall. A gradual shift from(More)
AIM Deficits in timing and sequencing behaviour in children with dyslexia and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have already been identified. However many studies have not controlled for comorbidity between dyslexia and ADHD. This study investigated timing performance of children with either dyslexia or ADHD, or ADHD + dyslexia or unaffected(More)
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from an identity priming task, where a green target had to be selected against a superimposed red distractor. Several priming conditions were realized in a mix of control (CO), negative priming (NP), and positive priming (PP) trials. PP and NP effects in reaction times (RTs) were significant. ERP results(More)
Three negative-priming studies were carried out to examine whether this paradigm allows a separation of the effects of aging on access, deletion, and restraint control of inhibition. In each study 24 younger (18 to 35 years old) and 24 older (57 to 82 years old) adults were asked to identify pictures. The results reveal difficulties among older adults in(More)