Marcus A. Altfeld

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Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells in mice. Blockade of this pathway using antibodies against the(More)
Within-patient HIV evolution reflects the strong selection pressure driving viral escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition. Whether this intrapatient accumulation of escape mutations translates into HIV evolution at the population level has not been evaluated. We studied over 300 patients drawn from the B- and C-clade epidemics, focusing on(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a central role in the innate immune response to tumors and infections. An important limitation in the field of NK research is attributable to the deficit of assays available for the detection of the functional activity of NK cells. Recently, lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 or(More)
Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific(More)
The extreme polymorphism in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I region of the human genome is suggested to provide an advantage in pathogen defence mediated by CD8+ T cells. HLA class I molecules present pathogen-derived peptides on the surface of infected cells for recognition by CD8+ T cells. However, the relative contributions of HLA-A and -B(More)
Deep sequencing technologies have the potential to transform the study of highly variable viral pathogens by providing a rapid and cost-effective approach to sensitively characterize rapidly evolving viral quasispecies. Here, we report on a high-throughput whole HIV-1 genome deep sequencing platform that combines 454 pyrosequencing with novel assembly and(More)
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
Virus-specific T-helper cells are considered critical for the control of chronic viral infections. Successful treatment of acute HIV-1 infection leads to augmentation of these responses, but whether this enhances immune control has not been determined. We administered one or two supervised treatment interruptions to eight subjects with treated acute(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are critical in the first-line defense against viral infections. Chronic HIV-1 infection leads to a perturbation in the NK cell compartment, yet the kinetics of this deregulation and the functional consequences are unclear. Here, we characterized changes in the NK cell compartment longitudinally by multiparameter flow cytometry,(More)
The error-prone replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enables it to continuously evade host CD8+ T-cell responses. The observed transmission, and potential accumulation, of CD8+ T-cell escape mutations in the population may suggest a gradual adaptation of HIV-1 to immune pressures. Recent reports, however, have highlighted the(More)