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[1] Satellite radar altimetry has the ability to monitor variations in surface water height (stage) for large wetlands, rivers, and associated floodplains. A clear advantage is the provision of data where traditional gauges are absent. As part of an international program, a complete altimetric analysis of the Amazon Basin is being undertaken. Here, an(More)
The Amazon Basin is one of the world's most important bioregions, harboring a rich array of plant and animal species and offering a wealth of goods and services to society. For years, ecological science has shown how large scale forest clearings cause declines in biodiversity and the availability of forest products. Yet some important changes in the(More)
[1] During this decade, the Amazon region has suffered two severe droughts in the short span of five years – 2005 and 2010. Studies on the 2005 drought present a complex, and sometimes contradictory, picture of how these forests have responded to the drought. Now, on the heels of the 2005 drought, comes an even stronger drought in 2010, as indicated by(More)
Zhao and Running (Reports, 20 August 2010, p. 940) reported a reduction in global terrestrial net primary production (NPP) from 2000 through 2009. We argue that the small trends, regional patterns, and interannual variations that they describe are artifacts of their NPP model. Satellite observations of vegetation activity show no statistically significant(More)
[1] A large increase in near-infrared (NIR) reflectance of Amazon forests during the light-rich dry season and a corresponding decrease during the light-poor wet season has been observed in satellite measurements. This increase has been variously interpreted as seasonal change in leaf area resulting from net leaf flushing in the dry season or net leaf(More)
1,2,4,7–10. Here, we quantify how biogeochemical 11 and biophysical processes combine to shape the climate regulation values of 18 natural and agricultural ecoregions across the Americas. Natural ecosystems generally had higher climate regulation values than agroecosystems, largely driven by differences in biogeochemical services. Bio-physical contributions(More)
Sublethal exposures of the marine amphipod Gammarus locusta to a concentration range of copper (Cu) in water (4 days' exposure; 3, 5 and 10 micro g Cu l(-1)) or spiked sediments (28 days' exposure; 1, 3 and 6 mg Cu kg(-1) dry weight) were performed, and the resulting bioaccumulation of Cu and effects on putative metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation(More)
Forests, through the regulation of regional water balances, provide a number of ecosystem services, including water for agriculture, hydroelectric power generation, navigation, industry, fisheries, and human consumption. Large-scale deforestation triggers complex non-linear interactions between the atmosphere and biosphere, which may impair such important(More)
We investigate the diffusion-reaction behavior of two-dimensional pore networks at the critical percolation point. Our results indicate the existence of three distinct regimes of reactivity, determined by parameter xi[triple bond]D/(Kl2), where D is the molecular diffusivity of the reagent, K is its chemical reaction coefficient, and l is the length scale(More)