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The hippocampus and amygdala, the entorhinal cortex and the parietal cortex participate, in that sequence, both in the formation and in the expression of memory for a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats. Bilateral infusion of AP5 or muscimol caused retrograde amnesia when given 0 min after training into both hippocampus and amygdala, when given or(More)
Experiments using localized infusions into selected brain structures of agonists and antagonists of various synaptic receptors, given before or after behavioral training, have led to the following conclusions: (1) Memory is processed shortly after training in the amygdala, medial septum and hippocampus by glutamatergic NMDA and AMPA receptors activated in(More)
The bilateral infusion of CNQX (0.5 or 1.25 micrograms) into the amygdala or dorsal hippocampus 10 min prior to a retention test partially blocked the expression of stepdown inhibitory avoidance in rats 24 h after training. When infused into both the amygdala and the hippocampus at a dose of 0.5 microgram. CNQX caused a complete blockade of the expression(More)
A total of 182 young adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally implanted with cannulae into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and into the amygdaloid nucleus, the entorhinal cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex. After recovery, the animals were trained in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. At various times after training (0, 30, 60 or 90 min)(More)
The blockers of glutamate receptors, aminophosphonovaleric acid (AP5) (5.0 micrograms) and cyano-nitroquinoxaline-dione (CNQX) (0.5 microgram), were infused bilaterally into the amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, or entorhinal cortex of rats through indwelling cannulae 0, 90, 180, or 360 min after step-down inhibitory avoidance training. Animals were tested for(More)
Rats were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus; after recovery, they were trained in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task and tested for retention 24 h later. Muscimol (0.03 microgram) or D-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (5.0 micrograms) infused in the entorhinal cortex 20 min prior to training inhibited the(More)
1. The immediate post-training microinjection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (5 micrograms) or of scopolamine, the cholinergic muscarinic antagonist (2 micrograms), into the dorsal hippocampus of rats caused retrograde amnesia for habituation to a novel environment, as measured by the number of rearings and(More)
The effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5, the nitric oxide synthase (NO) inhibitor NO-arg or the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT5720 on memory were evaluated. Rats bilaterally implanted in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained and tested in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task, and rats unilaterally implanted in the left(More)
Bilateral infusion of CNQX (0.5 microgram) into the amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus prior to a retention test blocked the expression of step-down inhibitory avoidance in rats 6, 13, or 20 days after training. Retention test performance recovered 90 min after the infusions. Pretest intrahippocampal CNQX (0.5 microgram) blocked the expression of(More)
Rats were trained in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task and tested for retention 1, 31, or 60 days later. Three to 7 days prior to testing, they were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and in the amygdaloid nucleus (H + A), in the entorhinal cortex (EC), and in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Ten minutes(More)