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Ice residual (IR) and total aerosol properties were measured in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch research station. Black carbon (BC) content and coating thickness of BC-containing particles were determined using single-particle soot photometers. The ice activated fraction (IAF), derived from a comparison of IR and total aerosol… (More)
Below the melting temperature Tm, crystals are the stable phase of typical elemental or molecular systems. However, cooling down a liquid below Tm, crystallization is anything but inevitable. The liquid can be supercooled, eventually forming a glass below the glass transition temperature Tg. Despite their long lifetimes and the presence of strong barriers… (More)
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An innovative time-of-flight distributed telemeter is presented, developed for the installation on train monitoring portals. It is composed of a single transmitter-receiver unit, and of up to six scanning stations, connected to the main unit by fiber optics pairs. The systems operates at 400 kHz, with a measuring range of 0.5-15m, and an uncertainty of ±… (More)