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The HOG/p38 MAP kinase route is an important stress-activated signal transduction pathway that is well conserved among eukaryotes. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of activation of the HOG pathway in budding yeast. This mechanism operates upon severe osmostress conditions (1.4 M NaCl) and is independent of the Sln1p and Sho1p osmosensors. The alternative(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The C-X-C chemokine receptors 3 (CXCR3) and C-X-C chemokine receptors 4 (CXCR4) are involved in various autoimmune diseases and cancers. Small antagonists have previously been shown to cross-inhibit chemokine binding to CXCR4, CC chemokine receptors 2 (CCR2) and 5 (CCR5) heteromers. We investigated whether CXCR3 and CXCR4 can form(More)
US28 is a viral G protein (heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein)-coupled receptor encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In addition to binding and internalizing chemokines, US28 constitutively activates signaling pathways linked to cell proliferation. Here, we show increased concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and(More)
The osmosensitive phenotype of the hog1 strain is suppressed at elevated temperature. Here, we show that the same holds true for the other commonly used HOG pathway mutant strains pbs2 and sho1ssk2ssk22, but not for ste11ssk2ssk22. Instead, the ste11ssk2ssk2 strain displayed a hyperosmosensitive phenotype at 37 degrees C. This phenotype is suppressed by(More)
The mechanism of client protein activation by Hsp90 is enigmatic, and it is uncertain whether Hsp90 employs a common route for all proteins. Using a mutational analysis approach, we investigated the activation of two types of client proteins, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the kinase v-Src by the middle domain of Hsp90 (Hsp90M) in vivo. Remarkably, the(More)
A protein kinase that is activated by calcium and cis-unsaturated fatty acids has been characterized from oat (Avena sativa L.) root plasma membranes. The kinase phosphorylates a synthetic peptide with a motif (-R-T-L-S-) that can be phosphorylated by both protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK)-type kinases. Calphostin C and(More)
Intracellular accumulation of glycerol is essential for yeast cells to survive hyperosmotic stress. Upon hyperosmotic stress the gene expression of enzymes in the glycerol pathway is strongly induced. Recently, however, it was shown that this gene-expression response is not essential for survival of an osmotic shock [Mettetal JT et al. (2008) Science 319:(More)
Many critical protein kinases rely on the Hsp90 chaperone machinery for stability and function. After initially forming a ternary complex with kinase client and the cochaperone p50(Cdc37), Hsp90 proceeds through a cycle of conformational changes facilitated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Progression through the chaperone cycle requires release of p50(Cdc37)(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of human cancers and are considered amongst the most desirable targets for drug development. Utilizing a robust quantitative PCR array, we quantified expression of 94 human GPCRs, including 75 orphan GPCRs and 19 chemokine receptors, and 36 chemokine ligands, in 40(More)
Herpesviruses encode membrane-associated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in their viral genomes that are structurally similar to chemokine receptors. These GPCRs hijack GPCR-mediated cellular signalling networks of the host for survival, replication and pathogenesis. In particular the herpesvirus-encoded chemokine receptors ORF74, BILF1 and US28, which(More)