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The hand is one of the most fascinating and sophisticated biological motor systems. The complex biomechanical and neural architecture of the hand poses challenging questions for understanding the control strategies that underlie the coordination of finger movements and forces required for a wide variety of behavioral tasks, ranging from multidigit grasping(More)
We have recently provided evidence for anticipatory grasp control mechanisms in the kinematic domain by showing that subjects modulate digit placement on an object based on its center of mass (CM) when it can be anticipated (Lukos et al., 2007). This behavior relied on sensorimotor memories about digit contact points and forces required for optimal(More)
Subjects were asked to shape the right hand as if to grasp and use a large number of familiar objects. The chosen objects typically are held with a variety of grips, including " precision " and " power " grips. Static hand posture was measured by recording the angular position of 15 joint angles of the fingers and of the thumb. Although subjects adopted(More)
The absorption of impacts resulting from contact with a landing surface during gait, running and drop landings has received considerable attention in the literature. This research has important clinical relevance as failure to appropriately plan and control impact absorption may lead to injuries to the musculo-skeletal system. This review attempts to(More)
This study was aimed at describing temporal synergies of hand movement and determining the influence of sensory cues on the control of these synergies. Subjects were asked to reach to and grasp various objects under three experimental conditions: (1) memory-guided movements, in which the object was not in view during the movement; (2) virtual object, in(More)
We report on recent work in modelling the process of grasping and active touch by natural and artificial hands. Starting from observations made in human hands about the correlation of degrees of freedom in patterns of more frequent use (postural synergies), we consider the implications of a geometrical model accounting for such data, which is applicable to(More)
It has been shown that when subjects can predict object properties [e.g., weight or center of mass (CM)], fingertip forces are appropriately scaled before the object is lifted, i.e., before somatosensory feedback can be processed. However, it is not known whether subjects, in addition to these anticipatory force mechanisms, exploit the ability to choose(More)
The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is "synergy control" which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept(More)
Dexterous object manipulation requires anticipatory control of digit positions and forces. Despite extensive studies on sensorimotor learning of digit forces, how humans learn to coordinate digit positions and forces has never been addressed. Furthermore, the functional role of anticipatory modulation of digit placement to object properties remains to be(More)
The ability to modulate digit forces during grasping relies on the coordination of multiple hand muscles. Because many muscles innervate each digit, the CNS can potentially choose from a large number of muscle coordination patterns to generate a given digit force. Studies of single-digit force production tasks have revealed that the electromyographic (EMG)(More)