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Subjects were asked to shape the right hand as if to grasp and use a large number of familiar objects. The chosen objects typically are held with a variety of grips, including "precision" and "power" grips. Static hand posture was measured by recording the angular position of 15 joint angles of the fingers and of the thumb. Although subjects adopted(More)
Compared with the control of precision grips involving the thumb and one or two fingers, the control of grasping using the entire hand involves a larger number of degrees of freedom that has to be controlled simultaneously, and it introduces indeterminacies in the distribution of grip forces suitable for holding an object. We studied the control of(More)
Subjects were asked to reach to and to grasp 15 similarly sized objects with the four fingers opposed to the thumb. The objects' contours differed: some presented a concave surface to the fingers, others a flat one, and yet others a convex surface. Flexion/extension at the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers was recorded(More)
The hand is one of the most fascinating and sophisticated biological motor systems. The complex biomechanical and neural architecture of the hand poses challenging questions for understanding the control strategies that underlie the coordination of finger movements and forces required for a wide variety of behavioral tasks, ranging from multidigit grasping(More)
Fingertip force control requires fine coordination of multiple hand muscles within and across the digits. While the modulation of neural drive to hand muscles as a function of force has been extensively studied, much less is known about the effects of fatigue on the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles. We asked eight subjects to perform a(More)
This study was aimed at describing temporal synergies of hand movement and determining the influence of sensory cues on the control of these synergies. Subjects were asked to reach to and grasp various objects under three experimental conditions: (1) memory-guided movements, in which the object was not in view during the movement; (2) virtual object, in(More)
The ability of human subjects to accurately control finger span (distance between thumb and one finger) was studied. The experiments were performed without visual feedback of the hand and were designed to study the dependence of accuracy on object size, shape, distance, orientation and finger configuration. The effects of finger combination and sensory(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether hand shaping was affected by planning of an action subsequent to object contact. Ten subjects (5 females and 5 males, ages 19-33) were requested to reach toward and grasp a convex object between the thumb and the four fingers of the right hand and to perform one of the following actions: 1) lift up the(More)
The absorption of impacts resulting from contact with a landing surface during gait, running and drop landings has received considerable attention in the literature. This research has important clinical relevance as failure to appropriately plan and control impact absorption may lead to injuries to the musculo-skeletal system. This review attempts to(More)
The control of self-initiated falls from different heights was studied. The objective of the study was to investigate in a quantitative manner the modulation of EMG timing (i.e. onset from take-off and duration from onset to touch-down) and amplitude (before and after foot contact) as a function of fall height. The muscles studied were m. soleus and m.(More)