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Subjects were asked to shape the right hand as if to grasp and use a large number of familiar objects. The chosen objects typically are held with a variety of grips, including "precision" and "power" grips. Static hand posture was measured by recording the angular position of 15 joint angles of the fingers and of the thumb. Although subjects adopted(More)
Subjects were asked to reach to and to grasp 15 similarly sized objects with the four fingers opposed to the thumb. The objects' contours differed: some presented a concave surface to the fingers, others a flat one, and yet others a convex surface. Flexion/extension at the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers was recorded(More)
Compared with the control of precision grips involving the thumb and one or two fingers, the control of grasping using the entire hand involves a larger number of degrees of freedom that has to be controlled simultaneously, and it introduces indeterminacies in the distribution of grip forces suitable for holding an object. We studied the control of(More)
The hand is one of the most fascinating and sophisticated biological motor systems. The complex biomechanical and neural architecture of the hand poses challenging questions for understanding the control strategies that underlie the coordination of finger movements and forces required for a wide variety of behavioral tasks, ranging from multidigit grasping(More)
Fingertip force control requires fine coordination of multiple hand muscles within and across the digits. While the modulation of neural drive to hand muscles as a function of force has been extensively studied, much less is known about the effects of fatigue on the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles. We asked eight subjects to perform a(More)
This study was aimed at describing temporal synergies of hand movement and determining the influence of sensory cues on the control of these synergies. Subjects were asked to reach to and grasp various objects under three experimental conditions: (1) memory-guided movements, in which the object was not in view during the movement; (2) virtual object, in(More)
The control of self-initiated falls from different heights was studied. The objective of the study was to investigate in a quantitative manner the modulation of EMG timing (i.e. onset from take-off and duration from onset to touch-down) and amplitude (before and after foot contact) as a function of fall height. The muscles studied were m. soleus and m.(More)
1. The role of vision in controlling leg muscle activation in landing from a drop was investigated. Subjects (n = 8) performed 10 drops from four heights (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m) with and without vision. Drop height was maintained constant throughout each block of trials to allow adaptation. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether hand shaping was affected by planning of an action subsequent to object contact. Ten subjects (5 females and 5 males, ages 19-33) were requested to reach toward and grasp a convex object between the thumb and the four fingers of the right hand and to perform one of the following actions: 1) lift up the(More)
The absorption of impacts resulting from contact with a landing surface during gait, running and drop landings has received considerable attention in the literature. This research has important clinical relevance as failure to appropriately plan and control impact absorption may lead to injuries to the musculo-skeletal system. This review attempts to(More)