Marco Santello

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Subjects were asked to shape the right hand as if to grasp and use a large number of familiar objects. The chosen objects typically are held with a variety of grips, including "precision" and "power" grips. Static hand posture was measured by recording the angular position of 15 joint angles of the fingers and of the thumb. Although subjects adopted(More)
This study was aimed at describing temporal synergies of hand movement and determining the influence of sensory cues on the control of these synergies. Subjects were asked to reach to and grasp various objects under three experimental conditions: (1) memory-guided movements, in which the object was not in view during the movement; (2) virtual object, in(More)
Subjects were asked to reach to and to grasp 15 similarly sized objects with the four fingers opposed to the thumb. The objects' contours differed: some presented a concave surface to the fingers, others a flat one, and yet others a convex surface. Flexion/extension at the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers was recorded(More)
The hand is one of the most fascinating and sophisticated biological motor systems. The complex biomechanical and neural architecture of the hand poses challenging questions for understanding the control strategies that underlie the coordination of finger movements and forces required for a wide variety of behavioral tasks, ranging from multidigit grasping(More)
The absorption of impacts resulting from contact with a landing surface during gait, running and drop landings has received considerable attention in the literature. This research has important clinical relevance as failure to appropriately plan and control impact absorption may lead to injuries to the musculo-skeletal system. This review attempts to(More)
1. The role of vision in controlling leg muscle activation in landing from a drop was investigated. Subjects (n = 8) performed 10 drops from four heights (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m) with and without vision. Drop height was maintained constant throughout each block of trials to allow adaptation. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which(More)
The ability to modulate digit forces during grasping relies on the coordination of multiple hand muscles. Because many muscles innervate each digit, the CNS can potentially choose from a large number of muscle coordination patterns to generate a given digit force. Studies of single-digit force production tasks have revealed that the electromyographic (EMG)(More)
Compared with the control of precision grips involving the thumb and one or two fingers, the control of grasping using the entire hand involves a larger number of degrees of freedom that has to be controlled simultaneously, and it introduces indeterminacies in the distribution of grip forces suitable for holding an object. We studied the control of(More)
The control of self-initiated falls from different heights was studied. The objective of the study was to investigate in a quantitative manner the modulation of EMG timing (i.e. onset from take-off and duration from onset to touch-down) and amplitude (before and after foot contact) as a function of fall height. The muscles studied were m. soleus and m.(More)
The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is "synergy control" which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept(More)