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Skeletal muscle atrophy is a debilitating response to fasting, disuse, cancer, and other systemic diseases. In atrophying muscles, the ubiquitin ligase, atrogin-1 (MAFbx), is dramatically induced, and this response is necessary for rapid atrophy. Here, we show that in cultured myotubes undergoing atrophy, the activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway decreases,(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Muscle atrophy occurs in many pathological states and results primarily from accelerated protein degradation and activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the importance of lysosomes in muscle atrophy has received little attention. Activation of FoxO transcription factors is essential for the atrophy induced by denervation or fasting, and(More)
Autophagy allows cell survival during starvation through the bulk degradation of proteins and organelles by lysosomal enzymes. However, the mechanisms responsible for the induction and regulation of the autophagy program are poorly understood. Here we show that the FoxO3 transcription factor, which plays a critical role in muscle atrophy, is necessary and(More)
Muscle performance is influenced by turnover of contractile proteins. Production of new myofibrils and degradation of existing proteins is a delicate balance, which, depending on the condition, can promote muscle growth or loss. Protein synthesis and protein degradation are coordinately regulated by pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress,(More)
Maintaining muscle size and fiber composition requires contractile activity. Increased activity stimulates expression of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha), which promotes fiber-type switching from glycolytic toward more oxidative fibers. In response to disuse or denervation, but(More)
Mitochondria are crucial organelles in the production of energy and in the control of signalling cascades. A machinery of pro-fusion and fission proteins regulates their morphology and subcellular localization. In muscle this results in an orderly pattern of intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Muscular atrophy is a genetically controlled(More)
Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases,(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways are the two major routes for protein and organelle clearance. In skeletal muscle, both systems are under FoxO regulation and their excessive activation induces severe muscle loss. Although altered autophagy has been observed in various myopathies, the specific role of autophagy in skeletal muscle has(More)
Skeletal muscle mass increases during postnatal development through a process of hypertrophy, i.e. enlargement of individual muscle fibers, and a similar process may be induced in adult skeletal muscle in response to contractile activity, such as strength exercise, and specific hormones, such as androgens and β-adrenergic agonists. Muscle hypertrophy occurs(More)