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Male and female F344 rats but not B6C3F1 mice exposed for 104 weeks to propiverine hydrochloride (1-methylpiperid-4-yl 2,2-diphenyl-2-(1-propoxy)acetate hydrochloride), used for treatment of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and overactive bladder (OAB), presented with an accumulation of proteins in the cytosol and nuclei of renal(More)
We introduce transport cost of trade in products into the classical Zodrow and Mieszkowski (1986) model of capital tax competition. It turns out that even small levels of transport cost lead to a complete breakdown of the seminal result, the underprovision of public goods. Instead, there is a symmetric equilibrium with efficient public goods provision in(More)
A generalized model is developed to quantitatively describe the smoothing effects from different polishing tools used for optical surfaces. The smoothing effect naturally corrects mid-to-high spatial frequency errors that have features small compared to the size of the polishing lap. The original parametric smoothing model provided a convenient way to(More)
Intraoperative spinal sonography to check whether fragments have been successfully repositioned requires enlargement of the natural interlaminar window to 8 x 10 mm. The present study was performed to measure any rotational instability caused by such a laminotomy and compare it with that resulting when the conventional methods of checking the spinal canal,(More)
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