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Male and female F344 rats but not B6C3F1 mice exposed for 104 weeks to propiverine hydrochloride (1-methylpiperid-4-yl 2,2-diphenyl-2-(1-propoxy)acetate hydrochloride), used for treatment of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and overactive bladder (OAB), presented with an accumulation of proteins in the cytosol and nuclei of renal(More)
We consider a differential game of a conflict between two factions who both have a desire to exact revenge. We show that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, the desire for revenge need not lead to escalation of conflicts. Surprisingly, in the open-loop equilibrium, the weaker faction exerts a higher effort when the stronger faction's military capability(More)
Empirical evidence from the U.S. and the European Union suggests that regions which contribute to interregional redistribution face weaker borrowing constraints than regions which benefit from interregional redistribution. This paper presents an argument in favor of such differentiated budgetary institutions. It develops a two-period model of a federation(More)
Thin capitalization rules have become an important element in the corporate tax systems of developed countries. This paper sets up a model where national and multinational firms choose tax-efficient financial structures and countries compete for multinational firms through statutory tax rates and thin capitalization rules that limit the tax-deductibility of(More)
Using a general multi-country equilibrium model with a multinational enterprise, this paper investigates the efficiency properties of separate accounting and formula apportion-ment. If governments are large, i.e. take into account the effect of their statutory tax rate on the interest rate, and maximize tax revenues, tax rates under separate accounting may(More)
Under the assumption of imperfect competition in a durable good industry, the present paper investigates the efficient regulation of solid waste which causes environmental damage at the end of the product's life. It turns out that the second-best waste tax falls short of the marginal environmental damage if the producers rent their products but may also(More)