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Neuroblastoma is notable for its cellular heterogeneity and unpredictable outcome. Tumors are a variable mixture of primitive malignant neuroblasts, more differentiated ganglionic cells, Schwann and endothelial cells. Although often fatal, neuroblastomas can spontaneously regress, possibly due to favorable autocrine and paracrine interactions among these(More)
p73, an important developmental gene, shares a high sequence homology with p53 and induces both G(1) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms through which p73 induces apoptosis are unclear. We found that p73-induced apoptosis is mediated by PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) induction, which, in turn, causes Bax(More)
Epidermal development requires the transcription factor p63, as p63-/- mice are born dead, without skin. The gene expresses two proteins, one with an amino-terminal transactivation domain (TAp63) and one without (deltaNp63), although their relative contribution to epidermal development is unknown. To address this issue, we reintroduced TAp63alpha and/or(More)
Stem cell technology has evoked considerable excitement among people interested in the welfare of animals, as it has suggested the potential availability of new tools for several pathologies, including eye disease, which in many cases is considered incurable. One such example is ulcerative keratitis, which is very frequent in horses. Because some of these(More)
Because adverse effects of glucose were attributed to its increased routing through the hexosamine pathway (HBP), we inquired whether HBP activation affects pancreatic beta-cell survival. Exposure of human islets to high glucose resulted in increased apoptosis of beta-cells upon serum deprivation that was reversed by azaserine. Also, glucosamine, a direct(More)
Transglutaminases (TGases) are seven enzymes, cross-linking proteins by gamma-glutamil-epsilon-lysine bonds, four of which are expressed in the skin. A new member of the TGase family, TGase 5, has been identified recently, and in the present study we evaluated its role in keratinocyte differentiation in vitro. In addition to the previously described(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is a Ca+2-dependent enzyme that catalyzes both intracellular and extracellular cross-linking reactions by transamidation of specific glutamine residues. TGase 2 is known to be involved in the membrane-mediated events required for glucose-stimulated insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells. Here we show that targeted(More)
To explore the expression and gain more information on the function of transglutaminase 5 enzyme in normal and defective human epidermis, we generated a rat antihuman transglutaminase 5 antiserum elicited against a purified active recombinant protein expressed in the baculovirus system. By use of Western blotting and immunofluorescence methods, the(More)
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. In the advanced stages of the disease, beta-cell dysfunction worsens and insulin therapy may be necessary to achieve satisfactory metabolic control. Studies in autopsies found decreased beta-cell mass in pancreas of people with type 2 diabetes. Apoptosis, a constitutive(More)
Molecular scanning of human IRS-1 gene revealed a common polymorphism causing Gly-->Arg972 change. Diabetic and pre-diabetic carriers of Arg972 IRS-1 are characterized by low fasting levels of insulin and C-peptide. To investigate directly whether the Arg 972 IRS-1 affects human islet cells survival, we took advantage of the unique opportunity to analyze(More)