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The diseased brain hosts a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells, including parenchymal microglia, perivascular cells, meningeal macrophages and blood-borne monocytes. To date, the different types of brain myeloid cells have been discriminated solely on the basis of their localization, morphology and surface epitope expression. However, recent data(More)
Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are key components of cellular immunity and are thought to originate and renew from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, some macrophages develop in the embryo before the appearance of definitive HSCs. We thus reinvestigated macrophage development. We found that the transcription factor Myb was required for(More)
Mononuclear phagocytic cells in the CNS used to be defined according to their anatomical location and surface marker expression. Recently, this concept has been challenged by the results of developmental and gene expression profiling studies that have used novel molecular biological tools to unravel the origin of microglia and to define their role as(More)
Microglia are crucially important myeloid cells in the CNS and constitute the first immunological barrier against pathogens and environmental insults. The factors controlling microglia recruitment from the blood remain elusive and the direct circulating microglia precursor has not yet been identified in vivo. Using a panel of bone marrow chimeric and(More)
Microglia are crucial for immune responses in the brain. Although their origin from the yolk sac has been recognized for some time, their precise precursors and the transcription program that is used are not known. We found that mouse microglia were derived from primitive c-kit(+) erythromyeloid precursors that were detected in the yolk sac as early as 8 d(More)
Mononuclear phagocytes are important modulators of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the specific functions of resident microglia, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, and perivascular macrophages have not been resolved. To elucidate the spatiotemporal roles of mononuclear phagocytes during disease, we targeted myeloid cell subsets from different compartments(More)
The chemokine receptor CCR2 plays a vital role for the induction of autoimmunity in the central nervous system. However, it remains unclear how the pathogenic response is mediated by CCR2-bearing cells. By combining bone marrow chimerism with gene targeting we detected a mild disease-modulating role of CCR2 during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,(More)
The interaction of endogenous and exogenous stimulators of innate immunity was examined in primary cultures of mouse microglial cells and macrophages after application of defined Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4), the synthetic lipopeptide Pam3Cys-Ser-Lys4 (Pam3Cys) (TLR2) and single-stranded unmethylated CpG-DNA (CpG)(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the Western world. The disease is characterized histologically by the infiltration of encephalitogenic TH1/TH17-polarized CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and a plethora of myeloid cells, resulting in severe demyelination ultimately leading to a degeneration of(More)
Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons for rapid impulse conduction and contribute to normal axonal functions in the central nervous system. In multiple sclerosis, demyelination is caused by autoimmune attacks, but the role of oligodendroglial cells in disease progression and axon degeneration is unclear. Here we show that oligodendrocytes harbor peroxisomes(More)