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Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are key components of cellular immunity and are thought to originate and renew from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, some macrophages develop in the embryo before the appearance of definitive HSCs. We thus reinvestigated macrophage development. We found that the transcription factor Myb was required for(More)
Microglia are crucially important myeloid cells in the CNS and constitute the first immunological barrier against pathogens and environmental insults. The factors controlling microglia recruitment from the blood remain elusive and the direct circulating microglia precursor has not yet been identified in vivo. Using a panel of bone marrow chimeric and(More)
Mononuclear phagocytic cells in the CNS used to be defined according to their anatomical location and surface marker expression. Recently, this concept has been challenged by the results of developmental and gene expression profiling studies that have used novel molecular biological tools to unravel the origin of microglia and to define their role as(More)
Microglia are crucial for immune responses in the brain. Although their origin from the yolk sac has been recognized for some time, their precise precursors and the transcription program that is used are not known. We found that mouse microglia were derived from primitive c-kit(+) erythromyeloid precursors that were detected in the yolk sac as early as 8 d(More)
The diseased brain hosts a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells, including parenchymal microglia, perivascular cells, meningeal macrophages and blood-borne monocytes. To date, the different types of brain myeloid cells have been discriminated solely on the basis of their localization, morphology and surface epitope expression. However, recent data(More)
Although microglial activation occurs in inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic central nervous system (CNS) disorders, its role in pathogenesis is unclear. We studied this question by generating CD11b-HSVTK transgenic mice, which express herpes simplex thymidine kinase in macrophages and microglia. Ganciclovir treatment of organotypic brain slice(More)
As the tissue macrophages of the CNS, microglia are critically involved in diseases of the CNS. However, it remains unknown what controls their maturation and activation under homeostatic conditions. We observed substantial contributions of the host microbiota to microglia homeostasis, as germ-free (GF) mice displayed global defects in microglia with(More)
Exposure of cells to stress, particularly oxidative stress, leads to misfolding of proteins and, if they are not refolded or degraded, to cytoplasmic protein aggregates. Protein aggregates are characteristic features of a variety of chronic toxic and degenerative diseases, such as Mallory bodies (MBs) in hepatocytes in alcoholic and non-alcoholic(More)
The action of type I interferons in the central nervous system (CNS) during autoimmunity is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate elevated interferon beta concentrations in the CNS, but not blood, of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for CNS autoimmunity. Furthermore, mice devoid of the broadly expressed type I IFN receptor(More)