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Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, proteomic and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses of residue on a stone flake from a 49,000 year-old layer of Sibudu (South Africa) indicate a mixture of ochre and casein from milk, likely obtained by killing a lactating wild bovid. Ochre powder production and use(More)
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the MOD flake Micro-samples (3.3 mg from the MOD flake and less than 1 mg from the other samples, see below) were collected from the specimens and submitted to an analytical procedure (GC/MS) in order to identify lipids, waxes, proteins, resinous materials and saccharides [1-2]. GC/MS had already been(More)
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