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Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease for over a century, but in the absence of clear biological(More)
Psychopathy is strongly associated with serious criminal behaviour (for example, rape and murder) and recidivism. However, the biological basis of psychopathy remains poorly understood. Earlier studies suggested that dysfunction of the amygdala and/or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may underpin psychopathy. Nobody, however, has ever studied the white matter(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have reported deficits in functional integration between prefrontal cortex and the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these alterations are a consequence of chronic illness or its treatment, and whether they are also evident in non-psychotic subjects at increased risk of the disorder. We addressed these(More)
BACKGROUND Structural brain volume abnormalities are among the most extensively studied endophenotypes in schizophrenia. Bivariate genetic model fitting (adjusted to account for selection) was used to quantify the genetic relationship between schizophrenia and brain volumes and to estimate the heritability of these volumes. METHOD We demonstrated by(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the method of choice for studying the neural correlates of cognitive tasks. Nevertheless, the scanner produces acoustic noise during the image acquisition process, which is a problem in the study of auditory pathway and language generally. The scanner acoustic noise not only produces activation in(More)
Multicenter studies can provide additional information over single center studies because of their increased statistical power. Because similar acquisition protocols are being used internationally for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain, volumetric MRI data studies seem suitable for this purpose. Possible systematic(More)
BACKGROUND Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for(More)
CONTEXT The use of endophenotypes, biological traits that increase the liability to a disorder, represents one strategy to facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes for complex behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia. Establishing that a candidate trait is both heritable and linked genetically to schizophrenia is integral to its validity as an(More)
BACKGROUND Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested as possible endophenotypes of schizophrenia. We investigated the test-retest reliabilities and heritabilities of three ERP components in healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS ERP components (P300, P50 and MMN) were recorded using a 19-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in 40(More)
OBJECTIVE Several components of event-related potentials--P50 suppression, P300 amplitude and latency, and mismatch negativity--have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia on the basis of family studies. The present study used a twin design to estimate the extent of genetic overlap between these indices and the liability to(More)