Marco J. Nathan

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Ectopic breast tissue comes in two forms: supernumerary and aberrant. Despite morphologic differences, ectopic breast tissue presents characteristics analogous to orthotopic breast tissue in terms of function and, most importantly, pathologic degeneration. Data in the literature concerning its precise incidence, the probability of malignant degeneration,(More)
Although the external rhinoplasty remains controversial it is difficult to understand why. The columella scar is of little significance since this becomes nearly invisible if the closure is carefully performed. There is a relative postoperative prolongation of nasal tip swelling in comparison with the closed technique, however this also becomes negligible(More)
Causality is a core concept in medicine. The quantitative determinacy characterizing today's biomedical science is unprecedented. The assessment of causal relations in human diseases is evolving, and it is therefore fundamental to keep up with the steady pace of theoretical and technological advancements. The exact specification of all causes of pathologies(More)
Reductionists in biology claim that all biological events can be explained in terms of genes and macromolecules alone, while antireductionists argue that some biological events must be explained at a higher level. The literature, however, does not distinguish between different kinds of molecular explanation. The goal of this essay is to identify and analyze(More)