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Carotenoids are important for various functions during chick development. Since these pigments cannot be synthesized, they can be considered limited resources that the mother optimally allocates between herself and her offspring (maternal effect). Some studies have examined the effects of carotenoids on growth and immune function but little is known about(More)
Carotenoids are important dietary constituents in birds. Their functions are numerous and complex, and breeding females are potentially faced with an optimal allocation of these resources between themselves and offspring. We conducted a dietary experiment (low and high supply of beta-carotene) to examine the effect of beta-carotene on health and immune(More)
Early maternal effects in the form of substances accumulated in the egg, such as carotenoids and hormones, can be physiologically relevant for a good development of offspring. It has been found in different species that testosterone (T) can be beneficial to offspring by increasing growth rate, but detrimental by reducing immunocompetence and increasing(More)
As maintenance of the immune system is energetically costly and resource-limited, trade-offs among immune function, body condition, and reproductive allocation are expected. In this study, we experimentally test the possible trade-off between immune response, self maintenance, and reproductive output in breeding grey partridges Perdix perdix. Before laying,(More)
Greylag goose populations are steadily increasing in north-western Europe. Although individuals breeding in the Netherlands have been considered mainly sedentary birds, those from Scandinavia or northern Germany fly towards their winter quarters, namely over France as far as Spain. This study aimed to determine the genetic structure of these birds, and to(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are becoming the most utilized markers in population genetics studies. Reduced representation genome techniques, as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), allow identifying great numbers of polymorphisms that are useful to analyze genetic diversity in non-model organisms. In this investigation, we implemented a GBS protocol(More)
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