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Natural killer (NK) cells are classically viewed as lymphocytes that provide innate surveillance against virally infected cells and tumour cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In humans, blood CD56(dim) NK cells specialize in the lysis of cell targets. In the lymph nodes, CD56(bright) NK cells secrete IFN-gamma(More)
The innate immune system responds to unique molecular signatures that are widely conserved among microbes but that are not normally present in host cells. Compounds that stimulate innate immune pathways may be valuable in the design of novel adjuvants, vaccines, and other immunotherapeutics. The cyclic dinucleotide cyclic-di-guanosine monophosphate(More)
Missense mutations in the CIAS1 gene cause three autoinflammatory disorders: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and neonatal-onset multiple-system inflammatory disease. Cryopyrin (also called Nalp3), the product of CIAS1, is a member of the NOD-LRR protein family that has been linked to the activation of intracellular host(More)
Natural interferon-producing cells (IPCs) specialize in the production of high levels of type 1 interferons (IFNs) in response to encapsulated DNA and RNA viruses. Here we demonstrate that the secretion of type 1 IFN in response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro is mediated by the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/MyD88 pathway. Moreover, IPCs(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis is negatively regulated by killer cell inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we characterize a novel inhibitory MHC class I receptor of the immunoglobulin-superfamily, expressed not only by subsets of NK and T cells, but also by B cells, monocytes,(More)
Host innate responses to bacterial infections are primarily mediated by neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These cells express pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that bind conserved molecular structures shared by groups of microorganisms. Stimulation of PRR signalling pathways initiates secretion of proinflammatory mediators, which promote the(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) of the ILC22 type protect the intestinal mucosa from infection by secreting interleukin 22 (IL-22). ILC22 cells include NKp46(+) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi)-like subsets that express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Here we found that Ahr(-/-) mice had a considerable deficit in ILC22 cells that resulted in less(More)
Defense against attaching-and-effacing bacteria requires the sequential generation of interleukin 23 (IL-23) and IL-22 to induce protective mucosal responses. Although CD4(+) and NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the critical source of IL-22 during infection, the precise source of IL-23 is unclear. We used genetic techniques to deplete mice of(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent(More)
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor that triggers intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recent genome-wide association studies have shown that a rare R47H mutation of TREM2 correlates with a substantial increase in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address the basis for this(More)