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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of developmentally related cells that are involved in immunity and in tissue development and remodelling. Recent research has identified several distinct members of this family. Confusingly, many different names have been used to characterize these newly identified ILC subsets. Here, we propose that ILCs should be(More)
Cardiac macrophages are crucial for tissue repair after cardiac injury but are not well characterized. Here we identify four populations of cardiac macrophages. At steady state, resident macrophages were primarily maintained through local proliferation. However, after macrophage depletion or during cardiac inflammation, Ly6c(hi) monocytes contributed to all(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are classically viewed as lymphocytes that provide innate surveillance against virally infected cells and tumour cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In humans, blood CD56(dim) NK cells specialize in the lysis of cell targets. In the lymph nodes, CD56(bright) NK cells secrete IFN-gamma(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) of the ILC22 type protect the intestinal mucosa from infection by secreting interleukin 22 (IL-22). ILC22 cells include NKp46(+) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi)-like subsets that express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Here we found that Ahr(-/-) mice had a considerable deficit in ILC22 cells that resulted in less(More)
The innate immune system responds to unique molecular signatures that are widely conserved among microbes but that are not normally present in host cells. Compounds that stimulate innate immune pathways may be valuable in the design of novel adjuvants, vaccines, and other immunotherapeutics. The cyclic dinucleotide cyclic-di-guanosine monophosphate(More)
Human and mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been shown to correspond to a specialized cell population that produces large amounts of type I interferons in response to viruses, the so-called natural interferon-producing cells. As a result, intensive investigation is now focused on the potential functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both innate(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis is negatively regulated by killer cell inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we characterize a novel inhibitory MHC class I receptor of the immunoglobulin-superfamily, expressed not only by subsets of NK and T cells, but also by B cells, monocytes,(More)
The innate immune system recognizes viral dsRNA through two distinct pathways; the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway detects dsRNA phagocytosed in endosomes; the helicases retinoic acid-induced protein I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (mda-5) detect cytoplasmic dsRNA generated during viral replication. Both RIG-I and mda-5 can bind(More)
Ig-like transcript 4 (ILT4) (also known as leukocyte Ig-like receptor 2, CD85d, and LILRB2) is a cell surface receptor expressed mainly on myelomonocytic cells, whereas ILT2 (also known as leukocyte Ig-like receptor 1, CD85j, and LILRB1) is expressed on a wider range of immune cells including subsets of natural killer and T cells. Both ILTs contain(More)
Natural interferon-producing cells (IPCs) specialize in the production of high levels of type 1 interferons (IFNs) in response to encapsulated DNA and RNA viruses. Here we demonstrate that the secretion of type 1 IFN in response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro is mediated by the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/MyD88 pathway. Moreover, IPCs(More)