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Serotonin uptake, mediated by the serotonin transporter (SERT), is blocked acutely by antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but such blockade does not correlate temporally with the onset of therapeutic improvement. Treatment with SSRIs for 21 d induced downregulation of the SERT (Benmansour et al., 1999). The time(More)
Brain norepinephrine (NE) modulates many aspects of the stress response. The interaction between NE and neuropeptides such as galanin, with which it is closely associated and which may be released from noradrenergic terminals under conditions of high activity, has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the modulatory effects of galanin in the(More)
We compared the response to repeated social defeat in rats selected as high (HR) and low (LR) responders to novelty. In experiment 1, we investigated the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of repeated social defeat in HR-LR rats. By the last defeat session, HR rats exhibited less passive-submissive behaviors than LR rats, and exhibited higher(More)
The neuropeptide galanin has been identified as a possible neurotransmitter/neuromodulator within the central nervous system. In the present study, a potential role for galanin in the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) in modulating behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to an acute stress was investigated. In the first experiment, acute(More)
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a component of the limbic fear-anxiety circuit, and has also been implicated in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis. The CeA receives dense noradrenergic innervation, and is rich in expression of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. We hypothesized that norepinephrine (NE), acting on(More)
The negative physical and affective aspects of opioid abstinence contribute to the prolongation of substance abuse. Withdrawal treatment is successful only in a subset of subjects, yet little is known about the neurobiological causes of these individual differences. Here, we compare the somatic and motivational components of opioid withdrawal in animals(More)
Many aspects of drug abuse and addiction share neurobiological substrates with the modulatory processes underlying the response and adaptation to acute stress. In particular, the ascending noradrenergic system has been implicated in facilitating the response to stress, and in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Thus, to better understand(More)
The function of the second nuclear estrogen receptor, estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), in the brain is largely unknown. The present study tested whether 1) ERbeta in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has a direct role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-mediated stress function, and 2) whether corticosterone (CORT) can(More)
We compared acute and chronic antinociceptive effects of morphine in animals with high reactivity (HR) vs. low reactivity (LR) to novelty. Antinociception was assessed by tail-flick test. Rats were i.p. injected with either saline or morphine (1.5 or 3mg/kg) every 12h for 7 days according to the treatment group. On day 1 of the experiment, LR animals in the(More)
The title pyridazine 1 was found to react with both 2,3-dihydrofuran (2) and 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (9) to give the tetracyclic skeletons 5-8 and the phthalonitrile 12 through the intermediates 4 and 10, respectively. A more complex mechanism was ascertained for the reaction of 1 with the pyrroline 14 which, under suitable conditions, afforded the bicyclic(More)