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Carbachol enhances rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when microinjected into the pontine reticular formation of the cat and rat. Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). The present study used in vitro autoradiography of carbachol-stimulated(More)
Cholinergic neurotransmission in the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) modulates rapid eye movement (REM) sleep generation. Microinjection of cholinergic agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors into the mPRF induces a REM sleep-like state, and microdialysis data reveal increased mPRF levels of acetylcholine during REM sleep. Muscarinic(More)
Mu opioid receptors within the pontine reticular formation contribute to opioid-induced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep inhibition. Mu receptors are coupled to guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins and this study tested the hypothesis that the micro opioid agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) would activate G proteins in rat brain stem(More)
OBJECTIVE Beating heart coronary revascularization is becoming increasingly popular world-wide. Temporary occlusion of the coronary artery is often required in order to perform the anastomosis. An alternative method to maintain perfusion is to use an intracoronary shunt. In this study, we monitored global left ventricular function and regional wall motion(More)
The vesamicol-like compound (+/-)-4-aminobenzovesamicol (ABV) non-competitively inhibits vesicular packaging of acetylcholine (ACh) in presynaptic terminals. This study tested the hypothesis that microinjection of ABV into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) of intact, unanesthetized cats would inhibit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.(More)
Microinjecting cholinomimetics into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) of conscious cats causes a rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-like state and state-dependent respiratory depression. Muscarinic receptors within the mPRF have been shown to mediate this state-dependent respiratory depression, but the specific signal transduction mechanisms remain(More)
UNLABELLED The primary goal in the management strategy of a patient with ED would be to determine its etiology and cure it when possible, and not just to treat the symptoms alone. One of the new therapeutic strategies is the use of low intensity extracorporeal shockwave (LISW) therapy. The mechanism of shockwave therapy is not completely clear. It is(More)
Recently, many studies explored the role of inflammation parameters in the prognosis of urinary cancers, but the results were not consistent. The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), a systemic inflammation marker, is a prognostic marker in various types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the preoperative mGPS(More)
Varicocele is present in 15% to 20% of the general population, but in approximately 35% to 40% of males presenting for an evaluation of their infertility. Indeed it is well known that varicocele can cause testicular damage and infertility. No evidence indicates a varicocele treatment in infertile men who have normal semen analysis or in men with subclinical(More)