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A study was performed on the ability of antivenoms, produced in Brazil and Costa Rica, to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities of the venoms of 16 species of Central and South American snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Neutralization of lethality was studied by two different methods routinely used in the quality control of antivenoms at(More)
Rabies is a viral encephalitis, nearly always fatal, but preventable through vaccines. Rabid animal bite is the prime transmission act, while veterinary vaccination is one of the best strategies for rabies general prevention. Aluminum compounds and saponin are the commercial adjuvants used for this vaccine nowadays. Nevertheless, aluminum compounds can(More)
The lack of a clear correlation between the levels of antibody to pertussis antigens and protection against disease lends credence to the possibility that cell-mediated immunity provides primary protection against disease. This phase I comparative trial had the aim of comparing the in vitro cellular immune response and anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT)(More)
Reduction of complement activation through an alteration of the Fc fragment of immunoglobulins by beta-propiolactone treatment was carried out in equine antisera raised against rabies virus, Bothrops venoms and diphtherial toxin. Results were evaluated by means of an anaphylactic test performed on guinea-pigs, and compared to the ones obtained with the same(More)
Snake venoms from M. corallinus (LD50 = 7.1 +/- 0.83 micrograms), M. frontalis (LD50 = 19.3 +/- 3.13 micrograms), M. ibiboboca (LD50 = 19.8 +/- 2.07 micrograms) and M. spiixi (LD50 = 6.7 +/- 1.25 micrograms) (family Elapidae, genus Micrurus) injected into horses alone or in combination (M. corallinus with M. frontalis) elicit antibody production, as(More)
During the cloning of abundant cDNAs expressed in the Micrurus corallinus coral snake venom gland, we cloned an alpha-neurotoxin homologue cDNA (nxh1). Two others isoforms were also cloned (nxh3 and nxh7, respectively). The nxh1 cDNA codes for a potential coral snake toxin with a signal peptide of 21 amino acids plus a predicted mature peptide with 57 amino(More)
This study investigated the relationship of polymorphisms in genes encoding CD14, IL-6 and TLR4 with metabolic, inflammatory and endothelial markers in young adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Glucose, lipids, nitrate and inflammatory markers, flow mediated vasodilatation (FMV) and flow mediated by nitrate (FMN) were evaluated in 102 AMI and 108(More)
Antivenoms are preparations of intact or fragmented (F(ab')2 or Fab) immunoglobulin G (IgG) used in human medicine to treat the severe envenomings resulting from the bites and stings of various animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, or marine animals, or from the contact with poisonous plants. They are obtained by fractionating plasma collected from(More)
Viral safety remains a challenge when processing a plasma-derived product. A variety of pathogens might be present in the starting material, which requires a downstream process capable of broad viral reduction. In this article, we used a wide panel of viruses to assess viral removal/inactivation of our downstream process for Snake Antivenom Immunoglobulin(More)
The main features associated with pit viper envenomations include the intense local lesions such as oedema, necrosis, acute renal failure and other effects. The severity of these reactions to snakebite depends on the degree of envenomation. Lachesis muta venom (LMV) has weak lethal activity, but due to the large amount often inoculated, the effects are(More)