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The purpose of this study was to investigate if botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A) had a preemptive antinociceptive effect in a formalin-induced orofacial pain model (FT). To test this hypothesis, male Rattus norvegicus were injected with isotonic saline solution 0.9% or BoNT/A administered as a 40 μl bolus, lateral to their nose, at 24 hours, 8, 15, 22,(More)
NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are involved in spinal transmission of nociceptive information in physiological and pathological conditions. Our objective was to study the influence of NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists on pain control in the trigeminal system using a formalin-induced orofacial pain model. Motor performance was also evaluated. Male Rattus(More)
UNLABELLED The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is susceptible to misdiagnosis, especially in the earlier stages of the disease. Recently, in vivo imaging techniques assessing the presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) have emerged as a useful tool in PD diagnosis, improving its accuracy. OBJECTIVE It was to illustrate the clinical(More)
Activation of the trigemino-cervical system constitutes one of the first steps in the genesis of migraine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of trigemino-cervical convergence mechanisms and to establish whether such mechanisms may also be of inhibitory origin. We describe a case of a 39-years-old woman suffering from episodic migraine(More)
BACKGROUND Throughout history, migraine-associated visual symptoms have puzzled patients, doctors, and neuroscientists. The visual aspects of migraine extend far beyond the aura phenomena, and have several clinical implications. METHODS A narrative review was conducted, beginning with migraine mechanisms, then followed by pertinent aspects of the anatomy(More)
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients may develop side effects from centrally acting drugs, have contraindications for neurosurgical procedures, or experience relapse during conventional therapies. OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT/A) has been reported to be effective for TN, although this finding has been challenged. An overview of the available evidence based on a(More)
UNLABELLED The efficacies of immunosuppressive (IMS) and immunomodulatory (IMM) drugs for multiple sclerosis (MS) have been reported in several studies. These agents can reduce relapse rates and lesions observed by magnetic resonance imaging studies. However, the effect of these medications in disability progression over 4 years is rarely examined. (More)
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