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BACKGROUND There are popular reports on the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks (such as Red Bull and similar beverages, which contain caffeine, taurine, carbohydrates, etc.) to reduce the depressant effects of alcohol on central nervous system, but no controlled studies have been performed. The main purpose of this study was to verify the effects of(More)
We developed a new method to produce obstructive apnoea in conscious rats. An inflatable balloon contained in a rigid Teflon tube was implanted in the trachea to allow the induction of apnoea without inducing pain. We also developed a balloon-tipped catheter that was advanced along the trachea into the mediastinum for the measurement of intrathoracic(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms involved in sleep perception are not widely known. Therefore, we believe that investigating this phenomenon is the best way to understand some of the mechanisms involved in several sleep disturbances, particularly insomnias. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to evaluate sleep perception in insomniacs, sleep-disordered(More)
The peripheral hyperosmolarity elicited by intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline brings potential benefits to the treatment of hemorrhage. The neural mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects remain unknown. The present study examines the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by hypertonic saline after hypovolemic(More)
One hundred and forty-eight patients admitted for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, but excluding esophageal varices, underwent optic fibre gastroscopy at the time of admission and were then examined using a barium meal after a 24-48 h interval. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the two tests. A(More)
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later,(More)
Renal ectopy is a rare congenital malformation related to an abnormal migration of the kidney from the sacral to the lumbar region. Three possibilities are present: absent migration (pelvic ectopia), excessive (intrathoracic ectopia) or to the opposite side (crossed ectopia). During the last 10 years in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the Niguarda(More)