Learn More
A model of the relations among cognitive precursors, early numeracy skill, and mathematical outcomes was tested for 182 children from 4.5 to 7.5 years of age. The model integrates research from neuroimaging, clinical populations, and normal development in children and adults. It includes 3 precursor pathways: quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention.(More)
Adults solved simple subtraction problems (e.g., 16 - 9). Half of the 32 participants provided immediate self-reports of their solution processes on each problem. Performance was analyzed using both traditional descriptive statistics (i.e., means, standard deviations, and percentage of errors) and with statistics derived from fitting the ex-Gaussian(More)
This paper details and applies a novel method for assigning function to local cortical structure. Imaging results from multiple cognitive domains were used to investigate what a shared neural substrate could be contributing to two apparently different domains: finger and number representation. We identified a region within the left precentral gyrus(More)
What precursor abilities form the building blocks of numerical representations? Two abilities were investigated: the ability to mentally represent small numerosities, indexed by subitizing speed (Butterworth, 1999), and the ability to mentally represent one's fingers, indexed by finger gnosis (Butterworth, 1999; Penner-Wilger & Anderson, 2008). We examined(More)
This paper elaborates a novel hypothesis regarding the observed predictive relation between finger gnosis and mathematical ability. In brief, we suggest that these two cognitive phenomena have overlapping neural substrates, as the result of the re-use (" redeployment ") of part of the finger gnosis circuit for the purpose of representing number. We offer(More)
Is the locus of the problem-size effect in mental arithmetic different across cultures? In a novel approach to this question, the ex-Gaussian distributional model was applied to response times for large (e.g., 8 x 9) and small (e.g., 2 x 3) problems obtained from Chinese and Canadian graduate students in a multiplication production task (LeFevre & Liu,(More)
This article lays out some of the empirical evidence for the importance of neural reuse-the reuse of existing (inherited and/or early developing) neural circuitry for multiple behavioral purposes-in defining the overall functional structure of the brain. We then discuss in some detail one particular instance of such reuse: the involvement of a local neural(More)
Butterworth (1999; 2005) proposed that several component abilities support our numerical representations and processes: an innate capacity to represent small numerosities (indexed by subitizing), fine motor ability (indexed here by finger tapping), and the ability to mentally represent one's fingers (indexed by finger gnosia). In the current paper, we(More)
The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual counts. On(More)
Does numeral format (e.g., 4 + 8 vs. four + eight) affect calculation per se? University students (N = 47) solved single-digit addition problems presented as Arabic digits or English words and reported their strategies (memory retrieval or procedures such as counting or transformation). Decomposition of the response time (RT) distributions into mu(More)