Marcia M Holstad

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Objective The primary aim of this study was to test a psychosocial model of medication adherence among people taking antiretroviral medications. This model was based primarily on social cognitive theory and included personal (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, stigma, depression, and spirituality), social (social support, difficult life circumstances), and(More)
Spirituality is a resource some HIV-positive women use to cope with HIV, and it also may have positive impact on physical health. This cross-sectional study examined associations of spiritual well-being, with depressive symptoms, and CD4 cell count and percentages among a non-random sample of 129 predominantly African-American HIV-positive women.(More)
Many HIV-positive women regard spirituality as an important part of their lives and spirituality may have positive impact on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Particularly among African American women with HIV, spirituality may serve as a cultural and psychological resource. This descriptive, crosssectional study examined associations between(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of sociodemographic characteristics, patient perceptions, and patient characteristics including spirituality, self-reported adherence, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. The convenience sample consisted of 120 English-speaking adults (60% male, 35% female, 5% transgendered) with HIV/AIDS from(More)
Nigerian women comprise the fastest growing group of persons with AIDS in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS to a treatable, chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a group intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART)(More)
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in several African armed forces are high, with gender inequality rendering female military personnel more vulnerable to the disease. The objective of this study was to replicate a successful videotape-based HIV prevention intervention among Nigerian female military personnel in an effort to(More)
We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9(More)
Women comprise the fastest growing group of persons with AIDS. They are often diagnosed later in the disease, when antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly indicated. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS to a treatable, chronic illness. This article provides a profile of women with HIV/AIDS and describes ART. Selected research(More)
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a connection between adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use of risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in HIV-infected women who were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. The sample consisted of 193 predominately African American women with an average age of 44 who had been on ARV for(More)
This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Antiretroviral General Adherence Scale (AGAS) in two National Institutes of Health-funded projects: the Get Busy Living Project, a behavioral clinical trial to promote consistent use of antiretroviral therapy, and the KHARMA (Keeping Healthy and Active with Risk Reduction and(More)