Marcia Divoll

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The effect of chronic low-dose oral contraceptive steroid use on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous acetaminophen was determined. Eight women using low-dose (under 50 micrograms) estrogen oral contraceptive steroid for more than 3 months were matched for age and weight (mean age, 25.9 years; mean weight, 58.3 kg) with 8 female controls not using the(More)
1 The onset and duration of action of benzodiazepines after single oral doses depend largely on absorption rate and extent of distribution, respectively. 2 The rate and extent of accumulation during multiple dosage depend on elimination half-life and clearance. A framework is proposed for classification of benzodiazepines according to elimination half-life.(More)
New benzodiazepine derivatives continue to be developed and introduced into clinical use. The pharmacokinetic properties of these newer drugs can best be understood by their categorisation according to range of elimination half-life and pathway of metabolism (oxidation versus conjugation). Clobazam and halazepam are long half-life (and therefore(More)
The influence of obesity on the distribution or clearance of lorazepam and oxazepam, two benzodiazepines biotransformed by glucuronide conjugation, was studied in a series of obese subjects (mean weight 113 kg; mean percent IBW 179%) and healthy controls of normal body habitus matched for age and sex. Overweight subjects and controls received 2 to 3 mg of(More)
Adverse reactions were evaluated from 45 double-blind controlled clinical trials involving triazolam 0.25 mg (N = 731), triazolam 0.5 mg (N = 2004), flurazepam 30 mg (N = 899), and placebo (N = 1771). Excessive CNS depression was the most frequent adverse effect, reported in 14.2% of trials with triazolam 0.25 mg, 19.5% with triazolam 0.5 mg, 23.9% with(More)
Three benzodiazepine derivatives are currently indicated specifically for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Flurazepam is biotransformed to at least two rapidly appearing and rapidly eliminated intermediate metabolites which probably contribute to sleep induction. The final metabolite, desalkylflurazepam, appears slowly, but has a long(More)
Thirty-two male and female volunteers, 24-84 years of age, ingested single 30-mg doses of temazepam, a 3-hydroxy-1,4-benzodiazepine derivative used as a hypnotic agent. Kinetics of total and unbound temazepam were determined from multiple plasma temazepam concentrations measured during 48 hr after the dose. The temazepam elimination half-life ranged from 8(More)
Thirty-two healthy men and women, 23 to 78 yr old, received single 650-mg intravenous doses of acetaminophen and the drug's kinetics were determined from multiple plasma samples drawn over the next 8 to 12 hr. Acetaminophen elimination half-life averaged 2.7 hr (range, 1.9 to 4.3 hr) and was not related to age or sex. Volume of distribution (corrected for(More)
Sixteen young (21-40 years) and nine elderly (65-78 years) volunteers received single intravenous doses of antipyrine on two occasions: once in the control state, and again while receiving therapeutic doses of cimetidine (300 mg every six hours). In the control state, antipyrine half-life was longer in elderly than in young subjects (16.4 vs 11.0 hours),(More)