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The ratio of males to females in a population is a meaningful characteristic of sexual species. The reason for this biological property to be available to the observers of nature seems to be a question never asked. Introducing the notion of historically adapted populations as global minimizers of maintenance cost functions, we propose a theoretical(More)
Recently Ott, Tomforde and Willis introduced a notion of one-sided shifts over infinite alphabets and proposed a definition for sliding block codes between such shift spaces. In this work we propose a more general definition for sliding block codes between Ott-Tomforde-Willis shift spaces and then we prove Curtis-Hedlund-Lyndon type theorems for them,(More)
Chargaff's second parity rule for short oligonucleotides states that the frequency of any short nucleotide sequence on a strand is approximately equal to the frequency of its reverse complement on the same strand. Recent studies have shown that, with the exception of organellar DNA, this parity rule generally holds for double-stranded DNA genomes and fails(More)
In this note we propose an alternative definition for sliding block codes between shift spaces. This definition coincides with the usual definition in the case that the shift space is defined on a finite alphabet, but it encompass a larger class of maps when the alphabet is infinite. In any case, the proposed definition keeps the idea that a sliding block(More)
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