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The administration of leptin to leptin-deficient humans, and the analogous Lepob/Lepob mice, effectively reduces hyperphagia and obesity. But common obesity is associated with elevated leptin, which suggests that obese humans are resistant to this adipocyte hormone. In addition to regulating long-term energy balance, leptin also rapidly affects neuronal(More)
D-fenfluramine (d-FEN) was once widely prescribed and was among the most effective weight loss drugs, but was withdrawn from clinical use because of reports of cardiac complications in a subset of patients. Discerning the neurobiology underlying the anorexic action of d-FEN may facilitate the development of new drugs to prevent and treat obesity. Through a(More)
The human dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) has received considerable attention because of its high affinity for the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the unusually polymorphic nature of its gene. To clarify the in vivo role of the D4R, we produced and analyzed mutant mice (D4R-/-) lacking this protein. Although less active in open field tests, D4R-/- mice(More)
Locomotor activity is a polygenic trait that varies widely among inbred strains of mice (). To characterize the role of D2 dopamine receptors in locomotion, we generated F2 hybrid (129/Sv x C57BL/6) D2 dopamine receptor (D2R)-deficient mice by gene targeting and investigated the contribution of genetic background to open-field activity and rotarod(More)
Presynaptic D2 dopamine (DA) autoreceptors, which are well known to modulate DA release, have recently been shown to regulate DA transporter (DAT) activity. To examine the effects of D2 DA receptor deficiency on DA release and DAT activity in dorsal striatum, we used mice genetically engineered to have two (D2+/+), one (D2+/-), or no (D2-/-) functional(More)
Although dopaminergic transmission has been strongly implicated in alcohol self-administration, the involvement of specific dopamine receptor subtypes has not been well established. We studied the ethanol preference and sensitivity of D2-receptor-deficient mice to directly evaluate whether dopamine D2 receptors contribute to alcohol (ethanol) consumption.(More)
Pharmacological blockade studies have supported a role of the dopamine system in ethanol reward for many years, but receptor subtype specificity has been difficult to establish. Recently, genetically engineered mice lacking functional dopamine D2 receptors have been shown to drink less ethanol in a two-bottle choice task. To determine whether reduced(More)
A physiological role for beta-endorphin in endogenous pain inhibition was investigated by targeted mutagenesis of the proopiomelanocortin gene in mouse embryonic stem cells. The tyrosine codon at position 179 of the proopiomelanocortin gene was converted to a premature translational stop codon. The resulting transgenic mice display no overt developmental or(More)
Dopamine (DA) D2 receptors expressed in DA neurons (D2 autoreceptors) exert a negative feedback regulation that reduces DA neuron firing, DA synthesis and DA release. As D2 receptors are mostly expressed in postsynaptic neurons, pharmacological and genetic approaches have been unable to definitively address the in vivo contribution of D2 autoreceptors to(More)
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus continues into adulthood, yet little is known about the function of newly born neurons or how they integrate into an existing network of mature neurons. We made transgenic mice that selectively and transiently express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in newly born granule cells of the dentate gyrus under the(More)