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This paper presents the fundamentals for the design of MOS analog and digital circuits that can operate at very low supply voltages. Operation of the MOS transistor in the triode region is highlighted owing to the limited voltages available. Special attention has been given to the properties of the zero-VT transistor due to its high drive capability at low(More)
This paper presents a very simple methodology for determining the threshold voltage. The procedure is based on the expressions of the Advanced Compact MOSFET (ACM) model, valid in all regimes of operation, which assures physical meaning, consistency and reliability for the results. The extraction of the threshold voltage is accomplished over a single(More)
This paper presents a brief discussion on the main MOSFET definitions of threshold voltage available in the literature and associated extraction methodologies. We have taken advantage of the Advanced Compact MOSFET (ACM) model, which accurately relates surface potential φ S to inversion charge density I Q′ in all regions of operation. A new robust and(More)
— In this paper we propose a four-quadrant multiplier based on a core cell that exploits the relationship between the saturation current of an MOS transistor and the source transconductance. The advantages of the proposed topology are simplicity and feasibility of low-power and low-voltage operation. Experimental results in a 0.35 µm CMOS prototype indicate(More)
This paper presents a very simple methodology for determining the effective channel length and width, which is independent of the determination of the threshold voltage. The procedure is based on measurement of the transconductance-to-current ratio (g m /I D) characteristic of the MOSFET in the linear region, from weak to moderate inversion. For the(More)
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