Marcelo A. Couto

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Endogenous, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides known as defensins are prominent components of human, rabbit, and rat neutrophils, yet little is known about their occurrence in other mammalian species. Although we did not detect mature (i.e., processed) defensins in equine neutrophil granules, we found that these granules contained small amounts of other(More)
Although purified defensins are effective microbicides in vitro, their operation within intact phagocytes has not been established. To address this question, we inserted cDNA encoding human defensin HNP-1 into a pBabe/neo retroviral vector and transduced it into RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage line that lacks endogenous defensins. We isolated five(More)
Defensins, small cationic polypeptides with antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, are among the principal constituents of cytoplasmic granules of mammalian neutrophils and certain macrophages. To identify conserved structural features of defensin precursors that may be important for their targeting to cytoplasmic granules or for prevention of(More)
We purified a novel cysteine-rich antibiotic peptide, eNAP-2 (M(r), approximately 6,500), from acid extracts of equine neutrophils by sequential gel filtration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and determined its partial N-terminal amino acid sequence. Although its cysteine motif distinguished eNAP-2 from all other currently known(More)
Equine neutrophil antimicrobial peptide 2 (eNAP-2), a recently described antimicrobial peptide isolated from equine neutrophils, was found to selectively inactivate microbial serine proteases (subtilisin A and proteinase K) without inhibiting mammalian serine proteases (human neutrophil elastase, human cathepsin G, and bovine pancreatic trypsin). Although(More)
UNLABELLED 9-(4-(18)F-Fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl]butyl)guanine ((18)F-FHBG) is a sensitive and specific PET reporter probe for imaging the PET reporter genes, herpes simplex 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and its mutant HSV1-sr39tk. (18)F-FHBG has suitable pharmacokinetics and dosimetry for clinical applications and imaging of HSV1-TK has been demonstrated in(More)
Cardiac phenotyping of transgenic mice typically requires anesthesia. Chemical-grade tribromoethanol (TBE) is commonly used for this purpose due to its relatively short duration of action, modest cardiodepressive effects, and its noncontrolled status. In the present study, we used both genders of C57BL/6;C3H-Tg(Slc8a1)hKdp transgenic (TG) mice and(More)
Animal research is a controversial subject because of the ethical and moral implications of using unwilling research subjects in potentially painful or distressful procedures usually ending in euthanasia. As such, it must be conducted in a compassionate and responsible manner geared toward maximizing the animals' quality of life prior to and during(More)
We have developed an efficient, streamlined, cost-effective approach to obtain Investigational New Drug (IND) approvals from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probes (while the FDA uses the terminology PET drugs, we are using “PET imaging probes,” “PET probes,” or “probes” as the descriptive terms). The(More)