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The human interleukin IL-6 was originally cloned in 1986. In 1993, William Ershler, in his article "IL-6: A Cytokine for Gerontologists," indicated IL-6 as one of the main signaling pathways modulating the complex relationship between aging and chronic morbidity. Over the last 12 years, our understanding of the role of IL-6 in human physiology and pathology(More)
Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be(More)
BACKGROUND Low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably. OBJECTIVES We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific subgroups (according to age and body mass index (BMI)) and(More)
The pathogenesis of frailty and the role of inflammation is poorly understood. We examined the evidence considering the relationship between inflammation and frailty through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of papers providing data on inflammatory biomarkers and frailty was carried out in major electronic databases from(More)
BACKGROUND Based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, we previously reported that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) increased with aging; was higher if elevated 2-h plasma postglucose challenge values were included as a criterion; and was greater in men, compared with women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the MS(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related losses of muscle mass, strength, and function (sarcopenia) pose significant threats to physical performance, independence, and quality of life. Nutritional supplementation could positively influence aspects of sarcopenia and thereby prevent mobility disability. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that a specific oral nutritional(More)
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is the most abundant circulating steroid secreted by adrenal glands--yet its function is unknown. Its serum concentration declines significantly with increasing age, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity.(More)
Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one(More)
BACKGROUND Poor muscle strength is a major public health concern in older persons, predisposing to functional limitations, increased fall risk, and higher mortality. Understanding risk factors for muscle strength decline may offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. One of the possible causes of muscle strength decline is imbalance between catabolic(More)
In older persons, vitamin D insufficiency and a subclinical chronic inflammatory status frequently coexist. Vitamin D has immune-modulatory and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. However, there is inconclusive evidence about the anti-inflammatory role of vitamin D in older subjects. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between(More)