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PURPOSE To further assess preclinical and early clinical evidence that imatinib mesylate, a platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor, modulates taxane activity in prostate cancer and bone metastases, a randomized study was conducted. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Men with progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases (n =(More)
PURPOSE NRAS and BRAF mutations are common in cutaneous melanomas, although rarely detected mutually in the same tumor. Distinct clinical correlates of these mutations have not been described, despite in vitro data suggesting enhanced oncogenic effects. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that primary human cutaneous melanomas harboring mutations(More)
PURPOSE 5-Azacytidine (5-AZA) is a DNA-hypomethylating agent. Valproic acid is a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Combining hypomethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors produces synergistic anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. On the basis of this evidence, we conducted a phase I study of the combination of 5-AZA and valproic acid in(More)
Metastatic melanoma cells express a number of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that are considered to be targets for imatinib. We conducted a phase II trial of imatinib in patients with metastatic melanoma expressing at least one of these PTKs. Twenty-one patients whose tumours expressed at least one PTK (c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptors,(More)
PURPOSE Most studies accept a multistep pathogenic process in melanoma that may include the phases of benign nevi and dysplastic nevi, melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. Dysregulation of cellular proliferation and apoptosis is probably involved in melanoma progression and response to therapy. We have studied the expression of galectin-3, a(More)
We reported that HER2/neu reduces the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) by suppressing nitric oxide production. We show that HER2/neu uses Akt to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and that inhibition of Akt or COX-2 increases 4-HPR-induced apoptosis and nitric oxide production. Apoptosis induced by the(More)
INTRODUCTION Tumor invasion and metastasis remain a major cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. High concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) suppress tumor invasion and metastasis in vivo. NO prodrugs generate large amounts of NO upon metabolism by appropriate intracellular enzymes, and therefore could have potential in the prevention and therapy of(More)
PURPOSE Second primary tumors (SPTs) are a hallmark of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Serum levels of insulin growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been associated with subsequent development of several epithelial cancers in prospective studies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN To examine the role of IGFs in SPT development,(More)
Women with germline mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) has been shown to have a clinical chemopreventive activity in patients with premenopausal breast cancer. Since BRCA1 mutations are associated with an early-onset(More)
Breast cancer most frequently metastasizes to bone causing decreased quality of life and morbidity. Since current treatments are palliative, strategies to prevent bone metastases in breast cancer patients are required. There is substantial evidence indicating that high levels of nitric oxide (NO) suppress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. We hypothesize(More)