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Thermal ablation to destroy tumor tissue may help activate tumor-specific T cells by elevating the presentation of tumor antigens to the immune system. However, the antitumor activity of these T cells may be restrained by their expression of the inhibitory T-cell coreceptor CTLA-4, the target of the recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved(More)
Unresponsiveness to self is maintained through two mechanisms of immune regulation: thymic-negative selection and peripheral tolerance. Although thymic-negative selection is a major mechanism to eliminate self-reactive T cells, normal mice have readily detectable populations of T cells reactive to self-proteins but do not exhibit autoimmune responses. It(More)
PURPOSE The objective was to determine the safety and clinical activity of atezolizumab (MPDL3280A), a humanized programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Exploratory biomarkers were analyzed and associated with outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS Seventy patients with metastatic RCC, including clear cell (ccRCC; n = 63) and(More)
The current paradigm of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease association suggests that efficient binding of autoantigens by disease-associated MHC molecules leads to a T cell-mediated immune response and resultant autoimmune sequelae. The data presented below offer a different model for this association of MHC with autoimmune diabetes. We used(More)
Discovery of immunologically relevant antigens in prostate cancer forms the basis for developing more potent active immunotherapy. We report here a strategy using the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, which allows for the functional identification of immunogenic prostate tumor antigens with relevance for human immunotherapy. Using a(More)
IL-15 has potential as an immunotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment because of its ability to effectively stimulate CD8 T cell, natural killer T cell, and natural killer cell immunity. However, its effectiveness may be limited by negative immunological checkpoints that attenuate immune responses. Recently a clinical trial of IL-15 in cancer immunotherapy(More)
We recently described a novel way to isolate populations of antigen-reactive CD4(+) T cells with a wide range of reactivity to a specific antigen, using immunization with a fixed dose of nominal antigen and FACS((R)) sorting by CD4(high) expression. Phenotypic, FACS((R)), functional, antibody inhibition, and major histocompatibility complex-peptide tetramer(More)
The low precursor frequency of Ag-specific T cells has raised significant barriers to studying the T cell response in vivo. We demonstrate that T cells up-regulate the cell surface expression of CD4 following Ag recognition, which identifies Ag-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo and allows their characterization. The CD4high cell subpopulation contains(More)