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CD8 T cell immune responses are known not to be essential during the initial stages of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but their presence becomes important as the chronic infection ensues. The basis of this is still not clear. In previous studies, we showed that CD8 T cells have a distinctive positioning in the architecture of the granuloma(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is one of the world's leading killers, stealing 1.4 million lives and causing 8.7 million new and relapsed infections in 2011. The only vaccine against tuberculosis is BCG which demonstrates variable efficacy in adults worldwide. Human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in the influx of inflammatory cells to the lung(More)
We report the involvement of an evolutionarily conserved set of mycobacterial genes, the esx-3 region, in evasion of bacterial killing by innate immunity. Whereas high-dose intravenous infections of mice with the rapidly growing mycobacterial species Mycobacterium smegmatis bearing an intact esx-3 locus were rapidly lethal, infection with an M. smegmatis(More)
Highly vacuolated or foamy macrophages are a distinct characteristic of granulomas in the lungs of animals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date these have usually been considered to represent activated macrophages derived from monocytes entering the lesions from the blood. However, we demonstrate in this study that foamy macrophages express(More)
The Beijing family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is part of lineage 2 (also known as the East Asian lineage). In clinical studies, we have observed that isolates from the sublineage RD207 of lineage 2 were more readily transmitted among humans. To investigate the basis for this difference, we tested representative strains with the characteristic(More)
The HN878 strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regarded as "hypervirulent" due to its rapid growth and reduced survival of infected mice when compared with other clinical isolates. This property has been ascribed due to an early increase in type I IFNs and a failure to generate TH1-mediated immunity, induced by a response to an unusual cell wall phenolic(More)
The purpose of this study was 2-fold. First, we evaluated standard chemotherapy in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis to determine if this animal species could productively be used for this purpose. Second, given the similarities of the pathology of disease in guinea pigs and humans, we wished to evaluate additional parameters, including magnetic(More)
Pulmonary tuberculosis in guinea pigs is an extremely useful model for drug and vaccine testing due to the fact that its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. Progress in this field has been hindered because the tools necessary to undertake a complete immunological analysis of the guinea pig cellular immune response against(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in macrophages is required for antipathogen responses, including the biosynthesis of nitric oxide from arginine, and is essential for immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii and other intracellular pathogens. Here we report a 'loophole' in the TLR pathway that is advantageous to these pathogens.(More)
Recent clinical observations shows that individuals treated with chemotherapy for tuberculosis who live in endemic areas are four times more likely to develop secondary disease, often as not caused by exogenous reinfection. In a mouse model described here, we show that mice infected with the virulent W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain HN878, then(More)