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Mercaptopurines have been used as anticancer agents for more than 40 years, and most acute lymphoblastic leukemias are treated with 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) or 6-thioguanine (TG). Overexpression of the two related multidrug resistance proteins MRP4 and MRP5 has been shown to confer some resistance against mercaptopurines, which has been attributed to(More)
The human multidrug resistance proteins MRP4 and MRP5 are organic anion transporters that have the unusual ability to transport cyclic nucleotides and some nucleoside monophosphate analogs. Base and nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of cancer and viral infections are potential substrates. To assess the possible contribution of MRP4 and MRP5 to(More)
Human cells can become multidrug resistant (MDR) by an increase in the activity of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein or by other, as yet unknown mechanisms, referred to as non-P-glycoprotein mediated MDR (non-Pgp MDR). S. P. C. Cole et al. [Science (Washington DC), 258: 1650-1654, 1992] recently reported that in two cell lines non-Pgp MDR was associated with the(More)
The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family contains at least six members: MRP1, the gene encoding the multidrug resistance protein; cMOAT or MRP2, encoding the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter; and four homologues, called MRP3, MRP4, MRP5, and MRP6. The most recently discovered member of the family, MRP6, is analyzed in this(More)
Tumor cells may display a multidrug resistance phenotype by overexpression of ATP binding cassette transporter genes such as multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). MDR3 P-gp is a close homologue of MDR1 P-gp, but its role in MDR is probably minor and remains to be established. The MRP1 protein(More)
Members of the multidrug resistance protein family, notably MRP1-4/ABCC1-4, and the breast cancer resistance protein BCRP/ABCG2 have been recognized as cellular exporters for the folate antagonist methotrexate (MTX). Here we show that MRP5/ABCC5 is also an antifolate and folate exporter based on the following evidence: (a) Using membrane vesicles from(More)
We have studied the potential contribution of ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein) to resistance to nucleoside analogues. In cells transfected with DNA constructs resulting in overexpression of human or mouse ABCG2, we found resistance against cladribine, clofarabine, fludarabine, 6-mercaptopurine, and 6-mercaptopurine riboside in both MDCKII and HEK293(More)
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines often have a compound phenotype, combining reduced drug accumulation with a decrease in topoisomerase II. We have analysed alterations in topoisomerase II in MDR derivatives of the human lung cancer cell line SW-1573. Selection with doxorubicin frequently resulted in reduced topo II alpha mRNA and protein levels, whereas(More)
We have analysed the contribution of several parameters, e.g. drug accumulation, MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and topoisomerase (topo) II, to drug resistance in a large set of drug-resistant variants of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line SW-1573 derived by selection with low concentrations of(More)
The ubiquitous efflux transporter ABCC5 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 5) is present at high levels in the blood-brain barrier, neurons, and glia, but its in vivo substrates and function are not known. Using untargeted metabolomic screens, we show that Abcc5(-/-) mice accumulate endogenous glutamate conjugates in several tissues, but brain in(More)
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