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CONTEXT In previous smaller trials, a procalcitonin (PCT) algorithm reduced antibiotic use in patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). OBJECTIVE To examine whether a PCT algorithm can reduce antibiotic exposure without increasing the risk for serious adverse outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A multicenter, noninferiority,(More)
OBJECTIVE Metabolic changes caused by antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated changes in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and 10-year risk of CHD in a large cohort of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS All individuals from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) who completed at least(More)
BACKGROUND Reduction of proteinuria is associated with delayed progression of chronic kidney disease. Reports suggest that angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce proteinuria, but results are variable. The relative effect of ARBs and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and their combined administration, remains uncertain. PURPOSE To(More)
Clinical decision-making often relies on a subject's absolute risk of a disease event of interest. However, in a frail population, competing risk events may preclude the occurrence of the event of interest. We review competing-risk regression models with a view toward predictive modeling. We show how measures of prognostic performance (such as calibration(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE MR including MRV is an established method to diagnose CVT. However, it remains unsettled which MR imaging modalities offer the highest diagnostic accuracy. We evaluated the accuracy of a combined, dynamic (1.5 seconds per dataset) and static (voxel size, 1.1 x 0.9 x 1.5 mm), contrast-enhanced MRV method (combo-4D MRV) relative to(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a frequently fatal disease caused by uncontrolled polyomavirus JC (JCV) in severely immunodeficient patients. We investigated the JCV-specific cellular and humoral immunity in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. We identified PML cases (n = 29), as well as three matched controls per case (n = 87), with(More)
BACKGROUND Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare(More)
OBJECTIVE Vision loss and ischaemic stroke are feared complications in GCA. We investigated how platelet count and size and platelet inhibition with ASA relate to ischaemic complications in patients with GCA. METHODS Charts of patients with GCA were retrospectively analysed. Jaw claudication, amaurosis fugax, blurred vision, ischaemic stroke and permanent(More)