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CONTEXT In previous smaller trials, a procalcitonin (PCT) algorithm reduced antibiotic use in patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). OBJECTIVE To examine whether a PCT algorithm can reduce antibiotic exposure without increasing the risk for serious adverse outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A multicenter, noninferiority,(More)
BACKGROUND Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary(More)
BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is important for the elimination of TB. We evaluated the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay as a direct rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for MDR-TB screening in sputum samples METHODS All adult TB suspects, who were newly(More)
attended by participants from academia and industry, and focused on recent experience from several randomized controlled clinical trials of candidate dengue therapeutic agents [1,2,3]. The aim of this article is to provide an informed set of recommendations for the design and conduct of early-phase clinical trials where safety and antiviral efficacy are the(More)
BACKGROUND As dengue spreads to new geographical regions and the force of infection changes in existing endemic areas, a greater breadth of clinical presentations is being recognised. Clinical experience suggests that adults manifest a pattern of complications different from those observed in children, but few reports have described the age-related spectrum(More)
Dengue hemorrhagic fever can occur in primary dengue virus (DENV) infection of infants. The decay of maternally derived DENV immunoglobulin (Ig) G and the incidence of DENV infection were determined in a prospectively studied cohort of 1244 Vietnamese infants. Higher concentrations of total IgG and DENV-reactive IgG were found in cord plasma relative to(More)
Life expectancy has dramatically increased in industrialized nations over the last 200 hundred years. The aging of populations carries over to clinical research and leads to an increasing representation of elderly and multimorbid individuals in study populations. Clinical research in these populations is complicated by the fact that individuals are likely(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate delayed HIV diagnosis and late initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. METHODS Two sub-populations were included: 1915 patients with HIV diagnosis from 1998 to 2007 and within 3 months of cohort registration (group A), and 1730 treatment-naïve patients with CD4>or=200 cells/microL before their(More)
We describe the magnitude and kinetics of plasma viremia and nonstructural protein 1 (sNS1) levels in sequential samples from 167 children with acute dengue, enrolled early in a community study in Vietnam. All children recovered fully, and only 5 required hospitalization. Among those with dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1), plasma viremia was significantly(More)
BACKGROUND Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare(More)