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The seven serologically different botulinum neurotoxins are highly potent protein toxins that inhibit neurotransmitter release from peripheral cholinergic synapses. The activated toxins consist of the toxifying A-subunits (Mr approximately 50,000) linked by a disulfide bond to the receptor-binding BC-subunits (Mr approximately 100,000). We have established(More)
The gelsolin-actin complex was ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin in lysates of human platelets and human neutrophils. When [32P]orthophosphate-labelled human neutrophils were treated with C. botulinum C2 toxin, [32P]ADP-ribosylated gelsolin-actin was precipitated with anti-gelsolin antibody. Stimulation(More)
ADP-ribosylation of the 1:1 (G-A) and 1:2 (G-A-A) gelsolin-actin complexes by Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin was studied. Iota toxin ADP-ribosylated actin in the G-A complex from human platelets as effectively as skeletal muscle actin. The Km for NAD (4 microM) was identical for both substrates. C2 toxin(More)
This new sensory method evaluates the intensity of an odorant by using a modified "paired-comparison" format. It can be applied to any situation for which the odor-causing agent is known and a purified standard is available. The attribute rating test requires that a standard solution of the odorant be prepared at a concentration that is both readily(More)
The paper introduces CARRING II, a further developmentof the CARRING communication network. CARRING is a reliable, ring-based, real-time Local Area Network (LAN). It was developed to connect e.g. mechatronic systems in cars, but it is also applicable to general LANs. The proposed network tries to solve the known problems of LANs with bus topology, e.g.(More)
Tin-doped cadmium sulfide nanowires reveal donor-acceptor pair transitions at low-temperature photoluminescence and furthermore exhibit ideal resonator morphology appropriate for lasing at continuous wave pumping. The continuous wave lasing mode is proven by the evolution of the emitted power and spectrum with increasing pump intensity. The high temperature(More)
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin belong to a novel family of actin ADP-ribosylating toxins. ADP-ribosylation of actin inhibits actin polymerization and G-actin-associated ATPase activity. The ADP-form of actin is ADP-ribosylated at a higher rate than actin with bound ATP. ADP-ribosylation of actin is reversible, a(More)