Marcel Méchali

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In eukaryotic cells, chromosomal DNA replication begins with the formation of pre-replication complexes at replication origins. Formation and maintenance of pre-replication complexes is dependent upon CDC6 (ref. 1), a protein which allows assembly of MCM2-7 proteins, which are putative replicative helicases. The functional assembly of MCM proteins into(More)
Eukaryotic replication origins are 'licensed' for replication early in the cell cycle by loading Mcm(2-7) proteins. As chromatin replicates, Mcm(2-7) are removed, thus preventing the origin from firing again. Here we report the purification of the RLF-B component of the licensing system and show that it corresponds to Cdt1. RLF-B/Cdt1 was inhibited by(More)
In metazoans, thousands of DNA replication origins (Oris) are activated at each cell cycle. Their genomic organization and their genetic nature remain elusive. Here, we characterized Oris by nascent strand (NS) purification and a genome-wide analysis in Drosophila and mouse cells. We show that in both species most CpG islands (CGI) contain Oris, although(More)
In early Xenopus embryos, in which ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are not transcribed, rDNA replication initiates and terminates at 9- to 12-kilobase pair intervals, with no detectable dependence on specific DNA sequences. Resumption of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis at late blastula and early gastrula is accompanied by a specific repression of replication(More)
At each cell division in humans, 30,000-50,000 DNA replication origins are activated, and it remains unclear how they are selected and recognized by replication factors. DNA replication in multicellular organisms must accommodate variations in growth conditions and DNA damage. It must also adapt to changes in chromatin organization associated with cell(More)
We have analysed the replication of the chromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster in Xenopus embryos before the midblastula transition. Two-dimensional gel analysis showed that replication forks are associated with the nuclear matrix, as in differentiated cells, and gave no evidence for single-stranded replication intermediates (RIs). Bubbles, simple forks(More)
A Xenopus homologue of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc21 has been characterized as a new member of the MCM family of proteins. The cdc21 protein exhibits cell-cycle dependent chromatin binding and phosphorylation in association with S-phase control. Cdc21 binds to decondensing chromatin at the end of mitosis, localizing to numerous foci which form prior to(More)
We recently reported the identification and characterization of DNA replication origins (Oris) in metazoan cell lines. Here, we describe additional bioinformatic analyses showing that the previously identified GC-rich sequence elements form origin G-rich repeated elements (OGREs) that are present in 67% to 90% of the DNA replication origins from Drosophila(More)
Animal cloning by nuclear-transfer experiments frequently fails due to the inability of transplanted nuclei to support normal embryonic development. We show here that the formation of mitotic chromosomes in the egg context is crucial for adapting differentiated nuclei for early development. Differentiated erythrocyte nuclei replicate inefficiently in(More)
MCM2-7 proteins are replication factors required to initiate DNA synthesis and are currently the best candidates for replicative helicases. We show that the MCM2-7-related protein MCM8 is required to efficiently replicate chromosomal DNA in Xenopus egg extracts. MCM8 does not associate with the soluble MCM2-7 complex and binds chromatin upon initiation of(More)