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In eukaryotic cells, chromosomal DNA replication begins with the formation of pre-replication complexes at replication origins. Formation and maintenance of pre-replication complexes is dependent upon CDC6 (ref. 1), a protein which allows assembly of MCM2-7 proteins, which are putative replicative helicases. The functional assembly of MCM proteins into(More)
Animal cloning by nuclear-transfer experiments frequently fails due to the inability of transplanted nuclei to support normal embryonic development. We show here that the formation of mitotic chromosomes in the egg context is crucial for adapting differentiated nuclei for early development. Differentiated erythrocyte nuclei replicate inefficiently in(More)
In early Xenopus embryos, in which ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are not transcribed, rDNA replication initiates and terminates at 9- to 12-kilobase pair intervals, with no detectable dependence on specific DNA sequences. Resumption of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis at late blastula and early gastrula is accompanied by a specific repression of replication(More)
During Xenopus laevis early development, the genome is replicated in less than 15 min every 30 min. We show that during this period, DNA replication proceeds in an atypical manner. Chromosomes become surrounded by a nuclear membrane lamina forming micronuclei or karyomeres. This genomic organization permits that prereplication centers gather on condensed(More)
We have characterized Xenopus ISWI, a catalytic subunit of a family of chromatin-remodeling complexes. We show that ISWI is expressed constitutively during development but poorly expressed in adult tissues except oocytes which contain a large store of maternal protein. We further analyzed its localization both in vivo and in vitro in Xenopus cell cycle(More)
In metazoans, thousands of DNA replication origins (Oris) are activated at each cell cycle. Their genomic organization and their genetic nature remain elusive. Here, we characterized Oris by nascent strand (NS) purification and a genome-wide analysis in Drosophila and mouse cells. We show that in both species most CpG islands (CGI) contain Oris, although(More)
We examined the controversial question concerning DNA sequences required for replication in Xenopus eggs. First we used yeast to isolate ARS elements from the Xenopus genome. They show a striking sequence homology with the yeast ARS consensus sequence. The cloning vector and the ARS-containing plasmids replicate equally after injection into Xenopus eggs.(More)
We describe a eucaryotic in vitro system for DNA replication derived from Xenopus eggs. In this system, priming and elongation of DNA chains occurs with unusually high efficiency on single-stranded circular DNA templates. Up to 1.5 micrograms M13 DNA can be converted to a completely double-stranded form by 100 microliters egg extract in 1 hr at 22 degrees(More)
We have examined the replication patterns of ribosomal DNA plasmids in vivo and in vitro using Xenopus eggs. Plasmids carrying different parts of the Xenopus ribosomal DNA sequence were allowed to replicate either in vitro in an egg extract or in vivo after microinjection into unfertilized eggs. The replication intermediates were analyzed by the 2D gel(More)
Meiotic maturation, the final step of oogenesis, is a crucial stage of development in which an immature oocyte becomes a fertilizable egg. In Xenopus, the ability to replicate DNA is acquired during maturation at breakdown of the nuclear envelope by translation of a DNA synthesis inducer that is not present in the oocyte. Here we identify Cdc6, which is(More)