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In eukaryotic cells, chromosomal DNA replication begins with the formation of pre-replication complexes at replication origins. Formation and maintenance of pre-replication complexes is dependent upon CDC6 (ref. 1), a protein which allows assembly of MCM2-7 proteins, which are putative replicative helicases. The functional assembly of MCM proteins into(More)
Eukaryotic replication origins are 'licensed' for replication early in the cell cycle by loading Mcm(2-7) proteins. As chromatin replicates, Mcm(2-7) are removed, thus preventing the origin from firing again. Here we report the purification of the RLF-B component of the licensing system and show that it corresponds to Cdt1. RLF-B/Cdt1 was inhibited by(More)
In early Xenopus development, transcription is repressed and DNA replication initiates at non-specific sites. Here, we show that a site-specific DNA replication origin can be induced in this context by the assembly of a transcription domain. Deletion of the promoter element abolishes site-specific initiation, and its relocalization to an ectopic site(More)
Acquisition of the competence to replicate requires the assembly of the MCM2-7 (minichromosome maintenance) protein complex onto pre-replicative chromatin, a step of the licensing reaction. This step is thought to occur through binding of a heterohexameric MCM complex containing the six related MCM subunits. Here we show that assembly of the MCM complex(More)
A Xenopus homologue of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc21 has been characterized as a new member of the MCM family of proteins. The cdc21 protein exhibits cell-cycle dependent chromatin binding and phosphorylation in association with S-phase control. Cdc21 binds to decondensing chromatin at the end of mitosis, localizing to numerous foci which form prior to(More)
Animal cloning by nuclear-transfer experiments frequently fails due to the inability of transplanted nuclei to support normal embryonic development. We show here that the formation of mitotic chromosomes in the egg context is crucial for adapting differentiated nuclei for early development. Differentiated erythrocyte nuclei replicate inefficiently in(More)
We have determined the crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain of human geminin, a DNA synthesis inhibitor in higher eukaryotes. We show that a peptide encompassing the five heptad repeats of the geminin leucine zipper (LZ) domain is a dimeric parallel coiled coil characterized by a unique pattern of internal polar residues and a negatively charged(More)
In metazoans, thousands of DNA replication origins (Oris) are activated at each cell cycle. Their genomic organization and their genetic nature remain elusive. Here, we characterized Oris by nascent strand (NS) purification and a genome-wide analysis in Drosophila and mouse cells. We show that in both species most CpG islands (CGI) contain Oris, although(More)
In early Xenopus embryos, in which ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are not transcribed, rDNA replication initiates and terminates at 9- to 12-kilobase pair intervals, with no detectable dependence on specific DNA sequences. Resumption of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis at late blastula and early gastrula is accompanied by a specific repression of replication(More)
We have analysed the replication of the chromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster in Xenopus embryos before the midblastula transition. Two-dimensional gel analysis showed that replication forks are associated with the nuclear matrix, as in differentiated cells, and gave no evidence for single-stranded replication intermediates (RIs). Bubbles, simple forks(More)